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pistil The female reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an ovary, style, and stigma
stigma the part of the pistil that receives the pollen grains; usually the top of the pistil
Octet rule a simple chemical theory that states that atoms tend to combine in such a way that they each have eight electrons in their valence shells, similar to the electronic configuration of a noble gas. In simple terms, molecules are more stable when the outer sh
Oxidation number the degree of oxidation of an atom or ion or molecule; for simple atoms or ions the oxidation number is equal to the ionic charge; "the oxidation number of hydrogen is +1 and of oxygen is -2"
Plinian eruption a volcanic eruption in which a stream of gas and ash is violently ejected to a height of several miles
pahoehoe A Hawaiian term for lava with a smooth, billowy, or ropy surface
Aa A type of lava surface in which the surface was too stiff to flow well, and so broke up into fragments. It is characterised by broken material which can vary from simple lumps to very sharp prickly fragments
subduction The process in which one lithospheric plate collides with and is forced down under another plate and drawn back into the Earth's mantle.
Joseph Priestly contribution to the chemistry of gases; Discovered oxygen
Jonas Salk Salk Vaccine against polio
Craig Venter-Francis Collins Decoded most of the human genome
Ivan Pavlov His biggest contribution to the field of psychology is classical conditioning, a theory about how behavior is learned;The dogs he used showed a salivation response when they where offered food (unconditional stimulus). The food was offered a number of tim
scarp Also "escarpment." A steep cliff or steep slope, formed either as a result of faulting or by the erosion of inclined rock strata.
refraction The bending of light as it passes from one medium to another
The butterfly effect the phenomenon whereby a small change at one place in a complex system can have large effects elsewhere, e.g., a butterfly flapping its wings in Rio de Janeiro might change the weather in Chicago
Chaos theory Current mathematical theory in which a chaotic system is defined as showing "sensitivity to initial conditions". In other words, if you don't know the initial conditions of a system with infinite accuracy then you can't predict its future behaviour with a
William Siemens Invented open-hearth furnace; For steel making
Alfred Russel Wallace Came up with theory of natural selection and evolution same time as Darwin
Alfred Wegener 1910;German;Pangaea (supercontinent);“Contenental drift”
J. Tazo Wilson 1965;Canadian;Cracks in seafloor = plates
solution A homogenous mixture of one or more solutes dissolved in a solvent
Laurasia The protocontinenet of the Northern Hemisphere from which the present continents have been derived by separation and continental displacement. Some geologists believe that Laurasia (and Gondwana) was derived from the supercontinent, Pangaea
Pangaea A proposed supercontinent that existed 300-200 million years ago that included most of the continental crust on Earth. Named by Alfred Wegener, Greek for "all lands", is proposed to have broken up into Laurasia and Gondwana and ultimately into present day
Panthalassa Ocean that covered the surface of the Earth not occupied by the world continent Pangaea between 300 and 200 million years ago
x-rays Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release energy - in the same energy range as gamma rays but of non-nuclear origin, of shorter wavelength than ultraviolet
Infrared rays Red rays located at the edge of a spectrum. They have long waves and strong effects on temperature. Often used for medical treatment and photos
spectrum The spectrum is the band of colors that white light is composed of, in the order: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet (from long to short wavelength). Newton first discovered that sunlight could be divided into the visible spectrum
nebula A cloud of interstellar (space) gas and dust
Chuck Yeager 1st person to break the sound barrier
Walter Sutton Discovered chromosomes carried genes from parent to offspring
Michael Faraday 1831;Magnetism causes electric field (electricity)
Hans Christian Oersted Magnetism could be produced from electricity
Created by: CVTMSCA