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Physcial Science 2

Stack #120628

Vocab TermDefinition
Pure Substance any element or compound, a substance is the same throughout and has a fixed chemical composition
Mixture two or more substances mixed together without being chemically combined. The substances can be separated without a chemical reaction.
Physical Properties a substance's color, odor, density, melting point and boiling point, ductility, and conductivity
Chemical Properties the ability of a substance to react with other substances
Periodic Table a chart of elements arranged by their atomic number (the number of protons in their nucleus)
Periods rows that begin with atoms containing one valence electron and end with atoms with a complete outer shell containing 8 electrons
Groups members have similar chemical and physical properties
Solids atoms, ions, and molecules are locked into fixed positions, giving the substance a fixed volume and shape
Liquids when energy is transferred to a substance, its particles start to move around melting the solid, this has volume, but no fixed shape
Gases if more heat is applied to a liquid, its particles will move more rapidly, breaking all connections and turn into this
Acid a special type of compound that forms hydrogen ions when dissolved in water, they taste tart or sour
Base a special type of compound that forms hydroxide ions in water, they taste bitter and are slippery
Acid/Base Reactions combine to produce a water and a salt
Displacement a change in an object's position
Distance the total length moved by the object
Velocity the rate and direction an object moves
Acceleration the change in an object's velocity (measured m/s/s)
Momentum mass multiplied by velocity
Friction a force from rubbing surfaces that opposes motion
First Law of Motion also called the Law of Inertia- an object at rest stays at rest, and an object in motion stays in motion at the same velocity unless an unbalanced force acts upon it
Second Law of Motion the net force acting on a body equals its mass times acceleration
Third Law of Motion for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
Energy the ability to do work
Kinetic Energy the energy of motion
Potential Energy stored energy
Law of Conservation of Energy energy can change its form, but its total quantity is always conserved
Thermal Energy a form of kinetic energy, basedon the vibrations and movements of atoms and molecules
Temperature a measure of the average kinetic energy of an object's particles; the higher the temperature, the greater their movement
Heat a transfer of energy from an object with a higher temperature to one with a lower temperature
Nuclear Fission splitting of nuclei of large atoms, releasing nuclear energy
Nuclear Fusion the joining together of nuclei of small atoms- hydrogen into helium- also releasing nuclear energy
Chain Reaction when a nucleus splits, its extra neutrons split other nuclei, releasing more energy and nuclei, splitting even more nuclei
Nuclear Reactions OR Conservation of Mass and Energy in nuclear reactions, small amounts of matter are converted into large amounts of energy
Mechanical Waves seismic, water, or sound passing through a medium; particles of medium pass along the energy of the wave
Electromagnetic Radiation can pass through some forms of matter but do not require it; can pass through a vacuum or outer space; includes invisible waves as well as visible light
Refraction a wave bends when passing through a different medium
Reflection waves bouncing back
Diffraction waves bending around
Created by: jgrimmett