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Physical Science 1

Stack #120625

Vocab TermDefinition
Heliocentric Theory the theory first proposed by Copernicus, stating that Earth and other planets revolve around the sun
Gravity a force of attraction between any two objects, it governs the movements of the planets
Stars formed out of clouds of gases and dust in space known as nebula, produce energy through nuclear fusion
Big Bang Theory the universe began in an explosion between 13-15 billion years ago, based upon stars moving away from one another
Continental Crust outermost layer of the Earth
Oceanic Crust lies beneath the ocean
Mantle made up of hot, dense rock, as one moves deeper, the temperature and pressure rise
Outer Core of Mantle made up of molten nickel and iron
Inner Core of Mantle solid, mainly made of iron
Lithosphere made up of crust and top layer of mantle, divided into shifting tectonic plates
Divergent Plate Boundary two tectonic plates spread apart, magma comes through the gap
Convergent Plate Boundary two tectonic plates come together
Subduction Zone oceanic crust dives under lighter continental crust
Transform Plate Boundary two plates slide by horizontally
Hydrosphere made up of all water on Earth's surface, accounts for 70% of Earth's surface
Water Cycle Circulates through evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and run-off
Atmosphere an envelope of gases around the Earth, mainly made up of nitrogen and oxygen
Greenhouse Effect burning fossil fuel adds carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, heating up the Earth
Atom smallest unit of matter unique to a particular element
Proton positively charged, located within the nucleus of an atom
Neutron neutral in charge, the same mass as the proton, located within the nucleus of an atom
Electron negatively charged, attracted to nucleus' positive charge, move around the nucleus at high speeds in different energy levels, same number as protons
Atomic Symbol one or two letters to identify elements
Atomic Number reflects the number of protons within an atom
Atomic Mass the sum of protons and neutrons within an atom
Electron Energy Levels each can hold on a specific number of electrons, an atom is most stable when it fills its outermost energy level
Ionic Bonds when a transfer of electrons occurs between two or more atoms, negatively charged ions are attracted to positively charged ions
Covalent Bonds some atoms complete their outer levels by sharing electrons
Chemical Reactions combinations of substances that result in one or more new substances with new physical and chemical properties
Balancing Equations there should be the same number of atoms on each side of a reaction
Conservation of Mass matter cannot be created or destroyed in a chemical reaction
Created by: jgrimmett