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OGT Science Vocab

Abiotic Non living
Acceleration The change in the rate of change in velocity usually in meters per second squared
Acid Low pH, less than 7
Active transport Cell dump but uses ATP energy
Adaptation A change in an organism over time because the environment changed
Adaptive radiation Spreading and evolution out of a population
Alleles Different DNA variants of a gene
Archaebacteria One of the three domains of life. Primitive single celled orgs
Atmosphere Gas surrounding the earth, mostly nitrogen and oxygen
ATP Energy form, adenosine triphosphate
Atom "Smallest" particle of an element
Atomic Number Number of protons in an atom
Nucleus Part of an atom, holds protons and neutrons
Base High pH , greater than 7
Big Bang Theory A TV show. Also theory how universe was created
Binary fission how bacteria (prokaryotes) reproduce by splitting in half
Biodiversity How many species are in an area. More is bettter
Biome Major type of ecological community
Biotechnology Usually DNA and genes
Biotic Living
Boiling point Temperature
Cell basic unit of life,
Cell membrane What surrounds a cell
Cell theory 1 2 3 Cells from cells, living = cells, cells basic part of organisms
Cell wall plants strong gives support to plants
Cellular respiration How cells use or release the energy in sugar to do stuff
Chemical change When chemical compounds react to form a new compound
Chemical reaction When chemical compounds react to form a new compound
Chromosome DNA in the cell carries the genetic information
Classification Arranging organisms into groups and naming them.
Climate Average weather conditions
Commensalism Two organisms together, one benefits the other doesn't care
Community All the different species in a defined area
Compound substance with two or more elements at a fixed ratio H2O CO2
Conduction Heat or electricity transmitted thru something
Conservation of mass matter is neither created nor destroyed
Consumer who you see at Wal Mart. Organism that earns its living feeding on another
COntrol group In an experiment, group used for comparison, everything kept constant
Convection Circular movement of heat, fluid etc like under the earth surface or in the atmosphere
Convergent plate boundaries Where tectonic plates converge - mountains form or deep ocean trenches
COre center of the earth hot iron or nickel
Covalent bond Shared electrons
Crust Outer layer of rock on earth
Cytoplasm Main part of a cell, fluid (cytosol) plus organelles
Data A recorded observation
Divergent Plate boundary Where tectonic plates pull apart
Decomposers bacteria fungi eat or break dead organisms
Density mass over volume (g per cm3) or (g per mL)
Dependent variable In an experiment, the variable whose response is not known or determined ahead of time.
DNA De oxy ribo nuclei acid Watson and Crick Genetic material
Dominant trait If you have one allele of a dominant trait, you show it.
Ecosystem Community of organisms and their evironment
Electricity Form of energy
Electromagnetic radiation Waves of energy Light xrays radio waves and others
Electron Subatomic particle orbits around nucleus
Element Atoms of one kind, their all the same
Endoplasmic reticulum An organelle Transport proteins in cell
Endothermic A reaction that absorbs energy (heat(
Energy Ability to do work
Equilibrium when oppposite forces are equal
Ethical guideline rules governing acceptable limits on experiments.
Eukaryotic cells Cells with membrane covered organelles and a nucleus
Evolution Genetic change in a population over time
Exothermic Reaction releasing heat
Experiment What we do to test an hypothesis
Fermentation no air, energy production like yeast, makes alcohol
Fission Splitting of atomic nucleus Releases energy, Regular atomic bomb
Folding Bending the earths crust to create mountains
Food chain Arrangement of organisms in an ecosystem showing who eats who.
Force What gets applied to an object to move it
Fossil Impression of traces of long dead organisms
Friction Rubbing Force that resists continual motion of objects
Fusion Joining of two atomic nuclei to form heavier nuclei like in the Sun. H Bomb
Gas State of matter, particles are spread apart
Gene Sequence of DNA bases on a chromosome that codes for a protein
Genetic drift gene changes in a small population
Genotype Genetic make up of an individual
Golgi Complex Organelle Package molecules
Gravitational potential energy Stored energy Height and mass
Gravity Attracive force between two object mass divided by distance squared
Heliocentric theory Earth circles sun
Heredity Characteristics from ancestors, based on genes
Heterozygous 2 different genes for a trait
Homeostasis Process by which organisms maintain internal conditions
Homologous chromosomes A pair of chromosomes that govern the same trait
Homozygous Having the same two copies of a gene
Hydrosphere All water on Earth
Hypothesis An informed possible and testable explanation of an observation
Igneous rock Rock from volcanic orgin from cooled magma or lava
Independent variable The one a scientist changes to see what happens
Ion An atom that has gained or lost electrons
Isotope A form of an element with extra neutrons which makes its mass bigger
Kinetic energy energy of motion KE = 1/2 mv2
Lithosphere Crust and mantle of earth 70 miles thick
Magma Molten rock
Mantle Earth's layer underground but not the core or crust
mass the amount of matter of an object proportional to weight
Matter has mass, occupies volume
Meiosis sex cells dividing in half Allows more variation
Metamorphic rock sedimentary or igneous rock that hss changed
Metal Most of the element Shiny, hard, ductile Conduct electricity
Mitochondria Organelle Converts energy (cellular respiration)
Mitosis Cell division to get 2 copies
Mixture two or more compounds hanging out together but not chemically connected
Molecule Atoms joined by covalent bonding
Mutation Inherited change in the DNA sequence
Mutualism 2 organisms hanging out together and both get something out of if
Natural selection Individuals having favorable adaptations will produce more surviving offspring and over time those traits increase in a population
Neutron One of the parts of an atom
Newtons law of motion 1 - things at rest stay at rest & vice versa 2 F = ma 3 equal & opposite forces for every action
Nucleus Inner core of an atom Has protons and neutrons In a cell - contains the DNA
Organelles Structures in a cell like mitochondria
Parasite You know what this is
periodic Table Table showing data for all the elements Organized by similar elements
pH Scale Acid is less than 7 Basic is greater than 7 Neutral is 7
Photosynthesis conversion by plants of CO2 + H2O into sugar
Plate tectonic theory Earths lithosphere composed of giant sliding plates
predator Organism that eats prey
Producer Organism that produces its own food
Prokaryotic cells Primitive, older cells like bacteria No nucleus
Proton Part of an atom Has mass and charge
Radiation Waves of energy
Radioactive decay When an unstable nucleus decays, emits subatomic particles and radiation
Radiometric dating To find age of rocks using radioactive elements
Reactant in a chemical reaction, one of the things on the left that changes
Recessive trait Trait that is seen if only two copies of its DNA is present
Reflection Bouncing back of light heat or sound after hitting a surface
Refraction Bending of light rays or of an energy wave Due to a change in the speed of the wave
Scientific investigation What scientists do when they are doing science. Obs/Hypothesis/design/get data/report etc
Scientific knowledge The accumulation of results of scientific work
Sedimentary rock Rock created by deposition of sediments like sand silt gravel from erosion
Seismic waves waves of energy from earthquakes
SOlid State of matter Closely packed atoms, definite density & shape
Solution Homogeneous mixture One evenly mixed in the other
Sound waves Mechanical radiant energy waves
Species A group of organisms capable of mating and producing offspring
Speciation The process of making a new species
Star Object in space Uses nuclear fusion
Subduction zone Where one tectonic plate goes under a lighter plate
Substance Form of matter with uniform chemical structure Elements, oompounds
Technology Using scientific knowledge to meet human needs
Temperature Measure of average kinetic energy of an object
Theory Possible explanation of observations and data Usually has many confirming examples
Thermal energy Heat based on the movement of particles
Tides Cyclical rising and falling of oceans
Trait Inherited characteristic
Variable A quantity that can change
Velocity The rate of change of an objects position over time
Water cycle Atmospheric vapor to precipitation into ground or lakes/oceans then back to atmosphere via evaporation & transpiration
Wave Vibration carrying energy Seismic sound light
Created by: rhallid