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Chemistry Ch. 12-13

Moseley solved the problem of the elements that did not fit the pattern according to their properties by arranging them with ______ ______. atomic number
When repeating chemical and physical properties of elements change periodically with the elements' atomic numbers, it is called the ________ ___. periodic law
In each square of the periodic table in your text, _______ _____ is not included. melting point
Elements are classified as metals, nonmetals, or metalloids according to their __________. properties
The number of _________ in the outer energy level of an atom helps determine which category an element belong in. electrons
Most elements are ______ which can be found to the left of the zigzag line on the periodic table. metals
Most metals are _______, which means that they can be drawn into thin wires. ductile
Most metals are _____ at room temperature. solids
Most metals are malleable. What does this mean? They can be hammered into thin sheets without breaking.
_________ are found to the right of the zigzag line on the periodic table. Nonmetals
Semiconductors, also called __________, are the elements that make up the zigzag line on the periodic table. metalloids
Elements in a _____ often share properties. group
The physical and chemical properties of the elements change across each ______. period
For most elements, the ________ ______ has one or two letters, with the first letter always capitalized. chemical symbol
Horizontal rows of elements on the period table are called ______. periods
Vertical columns of elements on the period table are called ______ or ________. groups;families
Elements in a group or family have similar properties if they have the same number of electrons in their _____ ______ _____. outer energy level
Alkali metals are usually not stored in _____. water
Atoms of ______________ have two outer level electrons. alkaline-earth
Name three alkaline-earth metals. beryllium, calcium, magnesium
Transition metals are not more reactive than ______ and ______________ metals. alkali;alkaline-earth
Two rows of transition metals are place at the bottom of the periodic table to save space. They are called ___________ and _________. lanthanides;actinides
Each element in the nitrogen group has ____ electrons in the outer level. five
Why is oxygen important? breathe, burn, air
The atoms of _______ need to gain only one electron to have a complete outer energy level. halogens
Halogens combine with most metals to form ____ such as ______ ________. salt;sodium chloride
Noble gases do not normally _____ with other elements. react
Hydrogen does not have ___ electrons in its outer energy level. two
What does periodic mean? repeating pattern
Mendeleev's pattern repeated after how many elements? seven
The periodic law says the properties of elements change with ______ ______. atomic number
Since 1914, ___ elements that have been discovered follow the periodic law. all
Most of the elements in the periodic table are ______. metals
More than half of the _________ are gases at room temperature. nonmetals
Metalloids are also called _______________. semi-conductors
Elements such as ___________ are named after places. californium
For most elements, the ________ ______ has one or two letters. chemical symbol
What is the horizontal row called? period
How do you read periods? from left to right
Transition metals are ____ conductors of thermal energy. good
Lanthanides are ________. reactive
Actinides are ___________. radioactive
All elements in the boron group are ________ and solids at room temperature. reactive
The most common element in the boron group is ________, which is used to make airplane parts. aluminium
Compounds of carbon, such as proteins, fats, and _____________, are necessary for life on Earth. carbohydrates
The symbol Sn stands for the metal, ___. tin
Nitrogen can react with _______ to make ammonia. hydrogen
In order for a substance to burn, it needs ______. oxygen
When a halogen reacts with a metal, ____ is made. salt
Hydrogen is located _____ group 1 on the period table. above
Group numbers on the periodic table can help you determine the number of _______ _________. valence electrons
Atoms gain, lost, or share _________ they bond. electrons
How many valence electrons does helium need to have a filled outer energy level? two
______ ______ is the number of protons in an atom. Atomic number
________ ____ is an interaction that holds two atoms together. Chemical bond
_______ _________ is an electron in the outer energy level of an atom. Valence electron
_____ _____ are elements that have eight valence electrons and normally do not form chemical bonds. Noble gases
An _____ bond forms when electrons are transferred from one atom to another. ionic
Charged particles, called ____, form when atoms gain or lose electrons. ions
When a sodium atom loses its only valence electron, it becomes a _______ ___. sodium ion
What is the charge of an aluminum ion that has 13 protons and 10 electrons? +3
The 3-D pattern that forms when ions bond is called _______ _______. crystal lattice
Most molecules are composed of ___ or more elements. one
Metals can bend without breaking because they contain constantly moving _________. electrons
A ________ bond forms when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons. covalent
A ________ is the smallest unit of a substance that still keeps the properties of the substance. molecule
An ____________ _______ model is used to show the valence electrons of an atom. electron-dot diagram
________ molecules are made of two atoms of the same element. Diatomic
A ________ bond is formed by the attraction between positively charged metal ions and the electrons around them. metallic
____________ is the ability of a metal to be hammered into thing sheets. Malleability
Electrons in an atom are organized by ______ ______. energy levels
_______ _________ are the only parts of an atom that make chemical bonds. Valence electrons
Why don't noble gases normally form chemical bonds? filled outer energy level
What allows metals to bond? overlapping energy levels, constantly moving electrons
________ elements are found in nature as diatomic molecules. Diatomic
ionic bond electrons are transferred;metal+nonmetal
cation a positively charged ion
anion a negatively charged ion
exothermic the releasing of energy
covalent bond electrons are shared;nonmetal+nonmetal
atom the smallest particle into which an element can be divided and still be the same element
group 18 noble gases that have a complete set of electrons
Created by: itslizzie143