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Ch 6 Muscles

The ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force Contractility
Each skeletal muscle that is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath Epimysium
Threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other Myofibrils
Myofibrils consists of 2 major kinds of protein fibers Actin myofilaments & Myosin myofilaments
The ability to be stretched Extensibility
Capaticity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus Excitability
Ability to recoil to their original resting lengh after they have been stretched Elasticity
A contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus that causes the action potential in one or more muscle fibers Muscle Twitch
where the musce remains contracted without relazing Tetany
Zygomaticus Smiling muscle
Temporalis Closes Jaw
Frontalis Raises eyebrows
Orbicularis Oculi Blinks and closes eyes
Orbicularis oris Puckers lips
Masseter Closes jaws
Buccinator Flattens the cheeks
Depressor Anguli Oris Frowning
Trunk muscles pectoralis major, Rectus abdominis, external oblique
Arm/Shoulder muscles Biceps brachii, Brachialis, Deltoid
Where are the cardiac muscles found The heart
Muscle Functions Producing movement, maintaining posture, stabilizing joints, generating heat
What contracts quickly and fatiques quickly Fast-twitch fibers
What contracts slow Slow-twitch fibers
What is a muscle fiber A single cylindrical cell containing several nuclei.
What are fasicculi (fasicles) A bundle of nerve or muscle fibers bound together by connective tissue
Isometric contraction Equal distance
Isotonic Equal tension
What is muscle tone Refers to constant tension produced by muscle of the body for long periods of time. keeps head up and back straight.
Origin Attachments of a muscle that remains relatively fixed during muscular contraction
Insertion The movable attachment of a muscle as opposed to its origin
Syngerist Muscles that work together
Fascia Connective tissue located outside the epimysium
Prime mover Muscle whose contractions are primarily responsible for a particular movement
What is mastication "chewing" the process by which food is ground by teeth.
Muscles involved in mastication Masseter, and temporalis
Intrinsic tongue muscles Superior longitudinal muscle, inferior longitudinal muscle, verticalis muscle, transversus muscle
Extrinsic tongue muscles Genioglossus muscle, hyoglossus muscle, stylogossus muscle, palatoglossus muscle
What is a sacromere Actin and myosin myofilamants from highly ordered units
Where is the flexor carpii located Forearm
Where is the deltoid located Shoulder
Where is the sartorius located Thigh
Where is the frontalis located Forehead
What does the deltoid do Abducts the arm
What does the sternocleidomastoid do Flexes neck
Where is the sternocleidomastoid located Sternum and clavicle
What is insertion The end of the muscle attached to the bone undergoing the greatest movement
What does the occipito frontalis do Raises eyebrows
2 types of tongue muscles Instrinsic and extrinsic
Sneering is done by what muscle Levator labii superioris
Needed for energy for muscle contraction ATP
Where is ATP produced Mitochondria
Anaerobic respiration Without oxygen
Aerobic respiration With oxygen
2 types of muscle contractions isotonic and isometric
Muscles that work in opposition to one another Antagonists
Threadlike structure that extends from one end of te fiber to the other Myofibrils
Nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers Motor neurons
a single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates Motor unit
Enlarged nerve terminal Presynaptic terminal
Space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell Synaptic cleft
Each presynaptic terminal contains synaptic vesicles
Synaptic vesicles secrete a neurotransmitter called Acetylcholine
Sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction Sliding filament mechanism
A muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level called Threshold
The between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction Lag phase
Time of contraction Contraction phase
Time during which the muscle relaxes Relaxation phase
The increase in number of motor units being activaed is called Recruitment
Origin Head
Some muscles have multiple Origins or Heads
White meat of a chicken breast Fast-twitch fibers
Dark meat of a chicken Slow-twitch fibers
Portion of the muscle between the origin and the insertion is the Belly
When ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells Muscle fatigue
The breif reversal back of the charge is called Action potential
Created by: sarahcary