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Chapter 6 - MUSCLES

Flashcards used to help study how muscles are composed and how they function.

Ability of skeletal muscle to shorten with force contractility
The capacity of skeletal muscle to respond to a stimulus excitability
The ability to be stretched extensibility
The ability to recoil to their (muscles) original resting lenth after they have been stretched. elasticity
Muscles produce _______. HEAT
Connective tissue that surrounds each skeletal muscle epimysium
Connective tissue located OUTSIDE the epimysium fascia
Muscle cells muscle fibers
What loose connective tissue surrounds muscle fasiculi? perimysium
Connective tissue that surrounds each muscle fiber endomysium
The cytoplasm of each muscle fiber is filled with _________. myofibrils
Myofibrils consist of 2 major kinds of protein fibers called _________ and _________. actin, myosin
Actin and Myosin myofilaments form units called ________. sarcomeres
Sarcomeres extend from _______ to _______. Z line to Z line
Z lines and I bands are made up of? actin
A bands are made up of? myosin
The outside of most membranes are ______ charged; The inside of the cell membrane is _______ charged. 1) positively 2) negatively
The Charge difference across a membrane is called the ________ _________ _________. resting membrane potential
When a muscle is stimulated the membrane characteristics change briefly. What is this called? action potential
Nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers motor neurons
Each branch that connects to a muscle neromuscular junction
Another name for neuromuscular junction synapse
A single MOTOR neuron and all of the skeletal muscle fibers around it innervates motor unit
The space between a presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell synaptic cleft
The muscle fiber at the end of a "synapse chain" postsynaptic terminal
Each presynaptic terminal contains _____ _____. synaptic vesicles
Synaptic vesicles secrete a neurotransmitter called? acetylcholine
What does acetylcholine do? diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds the postynaptic terminal, causing a change in the postsynaptic cell
Acetylcholine is released from synaptic vesicles when? When an action potential reaches the nerve terminal
Muscle cell membrane sarcolemma
Acetylcholine is broken down by this acetylcholinesterase
Occurs when actin and myosin myofilaments slide past one another muscle contraction
What "mechanism" is responsible for muscle contractions? sliding filament mechanism
In a sliding filament mechanism, which bands of a sarcomere shorten and which do not change in length? The H and I bands shorten, but the A bands do not change in length
Contraction of and entire muscle in response to a stimulus muscle twitch
A muscle fiber will not respond to a stimulus until that stimulus reaches a level called _______. threshold
The phenomenon of a muscle contracting maximally at threshold is called what? all-or-none response
The time of contraction contraction phase
The time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction lag phase
The time during which a muscle relaxes relaxation phase
If you get successive stimuli you get successive twitches
If you get successive twitches the muscle doesn't have time to fully relax
When a muscle remains contracted without relaxing tetany
The increase in number of motor units being activated recruitment
Energy that causes muscle contraction ATP
Where ATP is produced mitochondria
Is ATP long-lasting and stable? No.
ATP degenerates into ADP
Is ADP stable? Yes!
Muscles must always create ATP
Muscles cannot store _______ when at rest. ATP
Muscles CAN store a high energy molecule called creatine phosphate
Anaerobic respiration without oxygen
Aerobic respiration with oxygen
The reason we breath heavily after exercise even though our muscles are not active oxygen debt
Oxygen debt is? the amount of oxygen needed for chemical reactions to convert lactic acid into glucose and to replenish the depleted stores of creatine phosphate stores in muscle cells
Happens when ATP is used faster than it is made muscle fatigue
2 types of muscle contractions isometric and isotonic
In isometric contractions there is equal _______. length
In isotonic contractions there is equal _______. tension
The level at which muscles are conditioned and in shape. muscle tone
Muscle fibers that contract quickly and fatigue quickly fast-twitch fibers
Muscle fibers that contract slowly and fatigue slowly slow-twitch fibers
raises the eyebrows occipitofrontalis
closes eyelids and causes crows feet orbicularis oculi
used to pucker lips orbicularis oris
flattens the cheeks buccinator
smiling muscle zygomaticus
sneering muscle levator labii superioris
frowning muscle depressor anguli oris
rotates your head sternocleidomastoid
2 types of toungue muscles intrinsic and extrinsic
extrinsic muscles moves tongue
intrinsic muscles changes shape of tongue
Together, the orbicularis oris and the buccinators are known as what? the "kissing muscles"
Created by: Chase Marcum