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Unit 5 APHG

Chapter 11 Agriculture and Rural Land Use

TermDefinitionExtra or Examples
Agriculture The purposeful tending of crops and livestock in order to produce food and fiber
Primary economic Actiivities Economic activity concerned with the direct extraction of natural resources from the environment Mining, fishing, lumbering, and especially agriculture
Secondary Economic Activities Economic activity involving the process of raw materials and their transformation into finished industrial products; the manufacturing sector
Tertiary Economic Activities/Quaternary/Quinary economic activity associated with the provision of services such as transportation, banking, retailing, education, and routine office-based jobs
Plant Domestication Genetic modification of a plant such that its reproductive success depends on human intervention
Root Crops Crops that are reproduced by cultivating the roots of or the cuttings from the plants
Seed Crops Crop that is reproduced by cultivating the seeds of the plants
First Agricultural Revolution Dating back 10,000 years, this achieved plant & animal domestication
Animal Domestication Genetic modification of an animal such that it is rendered more amenable to human control
Subsistence Agriculture Self-sufficient agriculture that is small scale and low technology and emphasizes food production for local consumption, not for trade
Shifting Cultivation Cultivation of crops in tropical forest clearings in which the forest vegetation has been removed by cutting and burning. AKA Slash-and-burn
Slash-and-burn Agriculture Cultivation of crops in tropical forest clearings in which the forest vegetation has been removed by cutting and burning. AKA shifting cultivation
Rectangular Survey System the system that was used by the US Land Official Survey to parcel land west of the Appalachians. Divides land into a series of rectangular parcels AKA Public Land Survey
Township-and-range system Rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the US interior.
Metes and Bounds System a system of land division surveying east of the Appalachians. It relies on descriptions of land ownership and natural features sick as streams or trees. because of the imprecise nature of metes and bounds surveying, the US Land Office Survey abandoned the technique in favor of of the rectangular systems theory
Longlot survey system Distinct regional approach to land surveying found in Canadian Maritimes, parts of Quebec, Louisiana, and Texas whereby land is divided into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers, roads, or canals.
Primogeniture system which the eldest son in a family-or daughters-inherits all of a dying parents land
Second Agricultural Revolution Dovetailing with and benefiting from the Industrial Revolution, the second agricultural revolution witnessed improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce
Von Thunen Model a model that explains the location of agricultural activities in a commercial profit-making economy. Circle model
Third Agricultural Revolution Currently in process, the Third Agricultural Revolution has its principal orientation the development of GMOs
Green Revolution Recently successful development of higher-yield, fast-growing, varieties of rice and other cereals in certain developing countries, which led to increased production per unit area and a dramatic narrowing of the gap between population growth and food needs
Commercial Agriculture large scale farming and ranching operations that employ vast land bases, large mechanized equipment, factory type labor forces, and the latest technology
Monoculture Dependence on a single agricultural commodity
Koppen climate classification system a system for classifying the world's climates on the basis of temperature and precipitation Wladimir Koppen
Climatic Regions areas of the world with similar climatic characteristics
Plantation Agriculture production system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or cooperation and organized to produce a cash crop. Almost all plantations were established within the tropics; in recent decades, many have been divided into smaller holdings or reorganized as cooperatives.
Luxury Crops Non-subsistence crops tea, cocao, coffee, tobacco
Livestock Ranching the raising of domesticated animals for the production of meat and other byproducts such as leather and wool
Mediterranean Agriculture specialized farming that occurs only in areas where the dry-summer Mediterranean climate prevails
Agribusiness the businesses that provide the vast array of goods and services that support the agricultural industry
Biotechnology a form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes
Capital-intensive agriculture form of agriculture that uses mechanical goods such as machinery, tools, vehicles, and facilities to produce large amounts of agricultural goods- a process involving little human labor
desertification the process by which formerly fertile lands became increasingly arid, unproductive, and desert-like
Extensive Agriculture an agricultural system characterized by low inputs of labor per unit land area
Feedlots places where livestock and concentrated in a very small area and raised on hormones and hearty grains that prepare them for slaughter at a much more rapid rate than grazing; often referred to as factory farms
Fertile Crescent area located in the crescent shaped zone near the southeastern Mediterranean coast which was once a lush environment and one of the first hearths of domestication and thus agricultural activity Including Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and Turkey
Industrial Revolution The rapid economic changes that occurred in agricultural and manufacturing in England in the late 18th century and rapidly spread to other parts of the developed world
Intensive Cultivation Any kind of agricultural activity that involves effective and efficient use of labor on small plots of land to maximize crop yield
Mechanization the replacement of human labor with technology or machines
Labor-intensive agriculture Type of agriculture that requires large levels of manual labor to be successful
Pastoralism a type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter
Pestacides Chemicals used on plants that don't harm the plants, but kill pests and have negative repercussions on other species that ingest the chemicals
Planned Agricultural Economy an agricultural economy found in communist nations in which the government controls both agricultural production and distribution
Salinization Process that occurs when soil in arid areas are brought under cultivation through irrigation. In arid climates, water evaporates quickly off the ground surface, leaving salty residues that render the soil infertile
Specialty Crops Crops which are produced usually in developing countries for export Peanuts and Pineapples
Swidden Land that is prepared or agriculture by using the slash-and-burn method
Topsoil Loss loss of the top fertile layer is lost through erosion. It is a tremendous problem in areas with fragile soils, steep slopes, or torrential seasonal rains
Transhumanance the movements of livestock according to seasonal patterns generally lowland areas in the winter highland areas in the summer
Urban Sprawl The process of urban areas expanding outwards, usually in the form of suburbs, and developing over fertile agricultural land
Organic Agriculture Approach to farming and ranching that avoids the use of herbicides, pesticides, growth hormones, and other similar synthetic inputs
Created by: wrosenquist6359 on 2013-02-19



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