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Zoo Exam 1 Definint

Study stack for Rebar, Chapters 1,5,4

Phylogeny The Origin and diversification of any taxon, or the evolutionary history of its origin and diversification, usually presented as a dendrogram.
homology Similarity of parts or organs of different organisms caused by evolutionary derivation from a corresponding part or organ in a common anscestor. Usually has a similar embryonic origin.
nested hierarchy ordering of species into a series of increasingly more inclusive clades according to the taxonomic distribution of synamorphies.
clade A taxon or other group consisting of a particular ancestral lineage and all of its descendants, forming a distinct branch on a cladogram, or phylogenic treee.
synapomorphy shared evolutionarily derived character states that are used to recover patterns of common descent among two or more species. example: both owls and sparrows have feathers.
Allopatric Speciation New species arising through geographical area.
Adaptive radiation Evolutionary diversification that produces numerous ecologically disparate lineages from a single ancestral one.
Historical Evolution A change in species through time.
Mechanism for change artificial selection or teleological. Example: dog breeding.
Mechanism for change Natural selection or nonteleological. Example: selection/passingon of a trait in nature.
Mechanisms that change allel frequency mutation, migration, genetic drift.
Special case of Genetic Drift: Bottleneck bottleneck: a reduction in population size makes population more susceptible to genetic drift and thus results in a loss of genetic variability and genetic representation.
Example of Bottleneck Nothern Elephant Seals, cheetahs.
Natural Selection Certain traits give their possessors more advantages in survival and reproduction.
Adaptation microevolution:
speciation macroevolution
Protozoa: Ecological Relationships Everywhere, but require moisture. 10,000 are symbiotic (mutualist, commensalist or parasitist.
Protozoa move by- Pseudopodia, which make use of temporary extensions of the cytoplasm; Cilia, which are many short fibers made of microtubules; and Flagella which are longer cilia, in which there is only one or two.
Two kinds of cytoplasm Ectoplasm (plasmogel) and Endoplasm (plasmasol).
Protozoa feed by- phagocytosis in which it surrounds its food and engulfs it in a food vacuole.
Axoneme "9+2" tube of microtubules in a flagellum or cilium, which is covered by a membrane continuous with the plasma membrane.
kinetosome/basal body the connection between the axoneme, the inner plate and consists of triplets of microtubules, the same in structure as centrioles.
Nutrition of the Protozoa is: heterotrophic or autotrophic.
Digestion of the Protozoa occurs: Intracellularly through phagocytosis.
Protozoa remove waste through_____ and water through ______. excretion (through the cell membrane, osmoregulation.
Two other protists which make use of calcerous and silecious shells are: Foraminifera and Radiolarians.
Tonicity The relative concentration of two solutes within fluids (two fluids relative to each other).
Kinds of Tonicity: Isotonic (balanced), Hypotonic (solutes > Solvent/water), Hypertonic (solute < solvent/water)
Depending on tonicity water flows: Hypertonic in the cell, water flows in. Hypotonic in the cell, water flows out.
Schizogony Multiple fission (many mitotic divisons and then cytokinesis).
Kinds of Flagellates: Euglena/volvox (cholorplasts), Dinoflagellates (two flagella), terminite flagellates (Giardia, Trypanosoma Brucei Trypanosoma Cruzi).
Kinds of Amoebas Entamoeba hystolytica, Foraminifera, Radiolarians.
Phylum Ciliophora: always multinucleate (macronucleus and micronucleus). May have a pellicle, cytostome and trichocysts.
Seven mandatory Taxa/ranks: Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species.
The genus and species of an animal are written Both italicized or underlined, the first letter of the genus capitalized.
Phylum Apicomplexa All endoparasitic with an apical comples and many with spores (oocysts). Some may have invertebrate intermediate hosts (such as plasmodium or malaria).
Apical Complex. A multi organelled part of those in Apicomplexa, which is used to penetrate the host cell.
Phylum: Plasmodium. Malaria. (Types include: vivax, ovale, falciparum.)
Protostomes: include spiral cleavage, some coelomates, primitive gut and blastopore. Animals with protosomal embryonic stages are annelids, platyhelminthes, Rotifers ect.
Deuterostomes: include mostly radial cleavage, endomesoderm from the enterocoelous gut (except in chordates), all coelomates, anus forms at or near blastopore, mouth forms later in a nother place. Animals with Deuterostomal embyronic stages are phyla chordata ect.
Symmetry Radial, Bilateral, Asymmetrical.
Anterior Front of a animal.
Posterior Rear of an animal.
Dorsal Top of an animal.
Ventral Bottom of an animal.
Eucoelomate A true coelom lined with mesodermal peritoneum, also has a "tube-within-a-tube" arrangement. Includes Schizocoelous (split cavity) and enterocoelus (gut cavity).
Acoelomate No body cavity surrounding the gut, no organs.
Pseudocoelomate False cavity- tube within a tube. Two cavities with a persistent bastocoel within. Mesoderm only lines the ecoderm, and is usually a fluid filled space.
Metamerism Segmentation (repitition of segments within an animal, along the longitudinal axis).
Created by: al111816