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Nutr (Ch. 5)


protein(peptide) nitrogen-containing macronutrient made from amino acids
amino acid nutrient composed of a central carbon bonded to an amino group, carboxylic acid group, and a side-chain group(R-group)
peptide bond a chemical bond that joins amino acids
polypeptide a string of 13+ amino acids held together via peptide bond
amino group the nitrogen-containing component of an amino acid
R-group the portion of an amino acid's structure that distinguishes it from other amino acids
alpha-keto acid a compound that accepts an amino group from an amino acid in the process of transamination
transamination the process whereby an amino group is formed via the transfer of an amino group from one amino acid to another organic compound
phenylketonuria(PKU) an inherited disease in which the body cannot convert phenylalanine into tyrosine
complete protein source a food that contains all the essential amino acids in relative amounts needed by the body
incomplete protein source a food that lacks or contains very low amounts of one or more essential amino acids
limiting amino acid the essential amino acid in the lowest concentration in an incomplete protein source
protein complementation combining incomplete protein sources to provide all of the essential amino acids in relatively adequate amounts
high-quality protein source a complete protein source with high amino acid bioavailability
low-quality protein source a food that id either an incomplete protein source or one that has low amino acid bioavailability
genetically modified organism(GMO) an organism(plant or animal) made by genetic engineering
cell signalling the first step in protein synthesis, in which the cell recieves a signal to produce a protein. Note that this term is also used for a variety of other processes (aside from protein synthesis) within the cell
up-regulation in the context of protein synthesis, increased expression of a gene
down-regulation in the context of protein synthesis, decreased expression of a gene
transcription the process whereby mRNA is made using DNA as a template
chromosomes a strand of DNA and associated proteins in a cell's nucleus
gene a portion of a chromosome that codes for the primary structure of a protein
messenger ribonucleic acid(mRNA) a form of RNA involved in gene transcription
translation the process whereby amino acids are linked together via peptide bonds on ribosomes, using mRNA and tRNA
ribosome an organelle, associated with the endoplasmic reticulum in the cytoplasm, involved in gene translation
transfer ribonucleic acid(tRNA) a form of RNA in the cytoplasm involved in gene translation
primary structure the sequence of amino acids that make up a single peptide chain
sickle cell anemia a disease in which a small change in the amino acid sequence of hemoglobin causes red blood cells to become misshapen and decreases the ability of the blood to carry oxygen and carbon dioxide
secondary structure folding of a protein because of weak bonds that form between elements of the amino acids backbone(not R-groups)
alpha-helix a common configuration that makes up many proteins' secondary structures
Beta-folded sheet a common configuration that makes up many proteins' secondary structures
tertiary structure folding of a polypeptide chain because of interactions among the R-group of the amino acids
gene therapy the use of altered genes to enhance health
quaternary structure the combining of peptide chains with other peptide chains in a protein
prosthetic group a nonprotein component of a protein that is part of the quaternary structure
denaturation the alteration of a protein's 3-D structure by heat, acid, chemicals, enzymes, or agitation
genetic makeup the particular DNA contained in a person's cells
mutation the alteration of a gene
polymorphism an alteration in a gene that is present in at least 1% of the population
epigenetics alterations in gene expression that do not involve changes in the DNA sequence
nutrigenomics the science of how genetics and nutrition together influence health
gastrin a hormone, secreted by endocrine cells in the stomach, which stimulates the production and release of gastric juice
pepsinogen the inactive from(proenzyme) of pepsin, produced in the stomach
proenzyme an inactive precursor of an enzyme
pepsin an enzyme needed for protein digestion
protease an enzyme the cleaves peptide bonds
trypsinogen, chymotrysinogen, proelastase, and procarboxypeptidase inactive proenzymes produced in the pancreas and released into the small intestine in response to CCK
trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and carboxypeptidase active enzymes(proteases) involved in protein digestion in the small intestin
food allergy a condition in which the body's immune system reacts against a protein in food
food intolerance a condition in which the body reacts negatively to a food or food component but does not mount an immune response
anaphylaxis a severe and potentially threatening allergic reaction
catalyst a substance that increases the rate by which a chemical reaction occurs, without being consumed in the process
antibody a protein, produced by the immune system, that helps fight infection
albumin a protein important in regulating fluid balance between intravascular and interstitial spaces
edema the buildup of fluid in the interstitial spaces
glucogenic amino acid an amino acid that can be converted to glucose via gluconeogenesis
gluconeogenesis synthesis of glucose from noncarbohydrate sources
deamination the removal of an amino group from an amino acid
protein turnover the cycle involving both protein synthesis and protein degradation in the body
labile amino acid pool amino acids that are immediately available to cells for protein synthesis and other purposes
urea a relatively nontoxic, nitrogen-containing compound that is produced from ammonia
nitrogen balance the condition in which protein(nitrogen) intake equals protein(nitrogen) loss by the body
negative nitrogen balance the condition in which protein(nitrogen) intake is less than protein(nitrogen) loss by the body
positive nitrogen balance the condition in which protein(nitrogen) intake is greater than protein(nitrogen) loss by the body
vegetarian someone who does not consume any or selected foods and beverages made from animal products
lacto-ovo-vegetarian a type of vegetarian who consumes dairy products and eggs in an otherwise plant-based diet
lactovegetarian a type of vegetarian who consumes dairy products(but not eggs) in an otherwise plant-based diet
vegan a type of vegetarian who consumes no animal products
protein-energy malnutrition(PEM) protein deficiency accompanied by inadequate intake of protein and often of other essential nutrients as well
marasmus a form of PEM characterized by extreme wasting of muscle and adipose tissue
kwashiorkor a form of OEM often characterized by edema in the extremities
ascites abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity
Created by: syfisher