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MUSC101 Exam 1

Music Appreciation

Concert Etiquette -Enter early -No talking or other noises -Know when to applaud -If the music has started, wait for a break in the music before to enter the hall
Piece music with more then one singer or no singers at all
Three-part system -Movement -Larger Work -Composer
Mass "Prefatory Prayers" -Movement: "Prefatory Prayers" -Larger Work: Mass -Composer: Lenard Bernstein
Historical Style Styles change over time
Historical Periods -Medieval Era (Middle Ages 475-1450) -Renaissance Era -Baroque Era -Classical Era -Romantic Era -Twentieth Century and beyond
Patronage Music sponsored by the church
Plainchant (chant, Gregorian chant, plainsong) -Latin text -(Word rhythm) -(Monophony) -For worship
Hildegard von Bingen -"Alleluia, O virga mediatrix" -Composer - Hildegard -Renaissance era -monophonic music -Abbess -Mystic - 3 collections of prophecies and visions -Composer, poet, and playwright - worship music -Healer
Sound Organized vibrations in the air
Tone Sound with a consistent rate of vibration
Noise Sound without a consistent rate of vibration
Pitch ordering of sounds higher or lower
Duration number of beats or fractions of a beat
Notation Complex set of symbols used to indicate the pitch and duration of music sound
Melody sequence of series of pitches that are reconizable
Range Difference between the lowest and highest note
Contour/shape Shape of the music
Conjuct Melody that moves by a step up and down the scale
Disjunct Movement Disjointed melody that moves leaps up the scale
Phrase basic unit of construction of a melody
cadence a melodic, rhythmic or harmonic line that marks the end of the phrase
Scale the organization of the lowest to highest notes used in a piece
Melodic interval distance between two notes that come after one another
Octave 8th inteval
Rhythm anything having to do with time in music
Beat/Pulse beats in a repeating series of time
Accent to emphasize a beat
Meter regular occurring of accenting or non-accented muisc
Measure/Bar regularly occurring pattern of accented and non-accented notes
Downbeat Name given to the accented beat in a measure
Metrical Pattern Duple, Triple, Common
Non-metric Melody not based on the meter as a standard of measure
Syncopation accent of the beat
Additive Meter regular recurring irregular patterm
Polyrhythm two rhythmic patterns layered on top of each other
Harmony -musical, space, depth or dimension (vertical) -study of chords and their relationship
Chord two or more tones sounded at the same time
triad standard type of chord, three tone chord
Third Interval the most important interval in a chord
Tonic or Key-note first note of a scale ("Do") is home base
Tonality Principle of organization around a tonic, or home, pitch, based on major or minor scale
Diatonic harmonic system a scale built of whole steps and half steps
Major Scale Scale that sounds like all the white notes C to C
Minor Scale Scale that sounds like all the white notes A to A
Mondulation movement from on key to another in the flow of a piece
Arpeggio to present the notes one at a time
Harmonic Progression Movement from chord to chord
Harmonic Function Implied relationship with a home tone and/or with a chord
Dissonant (Chord) sounds hash and unstable
Consonance (Chord) sounds attractive and stable
Resolution moving from dissonant to a consonance
"A Little Night Music," first movement -composer - Mozart (w. Amadeus) -Elegant -Classical Era -Medium String Orchestra -Easy listening music -Tuneful "whist able" melodies -Balanced structure
Dominate is the chord and 5th scale degree and second to the tonic
Musical Texture Layers of their composition and their relationship
Monophony single layer of melody alone
Polyphony two or more melodies that are independent and equally important
Imitation Polyphony and they imitate each other
Counterpoint Polyphony and they are different then each other
Harmophony one layer that is more important then another
Imitation -More rigid doing exactly the same thing independently
"Hallelujah" -larger work Messaih -Baroque Composition -Composer - Handel
Theme melodic unit that is the basic building material of a composition
Motive/Motif fragment of a melody or a very short melody
Sequence Theme motif or theme appears numerous times at higher and higher pitches
Thematic development all the potential theme is explored
movement (multi-) piece of music complete in and of it self, but part of a larger work
Binary Form -Two-part form -A-B
Ternary Form -Three-part Form -A-B-A
Tempo The speed of recurrence of the beat
Allegro Adagio -fast -slow
Accelerando gradually get faster
Ritardando gradually get slower
Forte Piano -loud -soft
Crescendo gradually get louder
Decrescendo or Diminuendo gradually get softer
Interpretation shaping the expressive content of music
Timbre refers to the uniqueness of sound
Four Principles of Tone Pitch, Rhythm, Dynamics, Timbre
Musical Timbre the color, quality or timbre of a tone is determined by the number and relative intensity of its harmonic
Woman and Children Vocal Ranges/Timbre Soprano, Mezzo-Soprano, Alto
Men Vocal Ranges/Timbre Tenor, Baritone, Bass
"O Fortuna"- means o fortion -Composer: Carl Orff -Rhythm and mete: more prominent then any other era, highly accented, hypnotic -Harmony: harsh dissonance -Media:Chorus and orchestra with emphasis on percussion -Form: three verses (Strophic) -Expression: sounds pagan/primal
Four "Families" of Instruments Strings, woodwind, brass, percussion
Instrument Ensemble -large: orchestra, band -small: chamber orchestra
Keyboard Instruments piano, organ, keyboard
Conductor Leader of large ensambles, sets tempo
Medium band, orchestra, choir, or ensamble
Renaissance Era 1450-1600
A Cappella -without instruments -in the style of the Chapel (Pope's)
Continuous Imitation Renaissance polyphonic style in which the motif move from line to line within the texture, often overlapping one another
Word Painting the shape of the melody will equal the words
Cantus Firmus foundation melody
Church Modes church scale, one for every note white key to white key
Motet genre, a little word study
Important Renaissance Painters Michelangelo, Leonardo, Botticelli
Josquin-first name -from early Renaissance -Franco-Flemish training -Italian career
"Ave Maria...virgo serena" -composer-Josquin -changing texture and combination of voices -hormorhym texture -melody/harmony-uses a church mode -genre: Latin text
Homorhythm texture type of polyphony were they maintain their importance, but give up their independence, and change symbols in the same rhythm
Genre-The Italian Madrigal -born in Italy -grew out of popular poetic form'-text: short, lyric/reflective poem -word painting
The English Madrigal -the "Elizabethan" Madrigal --"Gloriana" --"Oriana" -developed from Italian Madrial
John Farmer -composer of late Renaissance -career from Dublin -Later moved to London to write Madrigals
"Fair Phyllis" -composer-John Farmer -english Madriggal -sectional repititions -Contrasting texture -pastoral text -word painting -playful, flirtatious mood
Musical Transalpina music from across the alps
Created by: NickUD