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Chapter 1

A First Look at Anatomy

anatomy study of structure
cytology study of single body cells and their structure
histology study of tissues
gross anatomy investigates the structure and relationship of large body parts that are visible to the unaided eye, such as the intestines, stomach, brain, heart, and kidneys
developmental anatomy follows the changes in structure within an individual during the time from conception through maturity
embryology concerned specifically with developmental changes occurring prior to birth
regional anatomy examines all the structures in a particular region of the body as one complete unit- for example, the skin, connective tissue and fat, bones, muscles, nerves, and blood vessels of the neck
surface anatomy examines both superficial anatomic markings and internal body structures as they relate to the skin covering them
systemic anatomy studies the gross anatomy of each system in the body.
pathologic anatomy studies all anatomic changes resulting from disease
radiographic anatomy studies the relationships among internal structures that may be visualized by specific scanning procedures such as by ultrasound, by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or by x-rays
surgical anatomy investigates the anatomic landmarks used for surgery
atoms smallest units of matter
molecule two or more atoms combined
cells the basic units of structure and function in organisms
tissues precise organizations of similar cells that perform specialized functions
organs contain two or more tissue types that work together to perform specific, complex functions
characteristics of living things 1) organization 2) metabolism 3) growth and development 4) responsiveness 5) regulation 6) reproduction
metabolism sum of all chemical reactions in an organism
homeostasis control and regulatory mechanisms within an organism maintain a consistent internal environment
anatomic position individual stands upright with feet parallel and flat on the floor. head is level. arms are at either side of the body with the thumbs pointing away from the body
coronal plane (frontal plane) vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
transverse cut (cross-sectional plane/ horizontal plane) cuts perpendicularly along the long axis of the body or organ
sagittal plane (median plane) extends through the body or organ vertically and divides the structure into right and left halves
oblique plane passes through the specimen at an angle
axial region includes the head, neck, and trunk; forms the main axis of our body
appendicular region or limbs or appendages
cranial cavity formed by the cranium and houses the brain
vertebral cavity formed by the individual bones of the vertebral column and contains the spinal cord
ventral cavity arises from a space called the coelom that forms during embryonic development. The ventral cavity eventually becomes partitioned into a superior thoracic cavity and an inferior abdominopelvic cavity with the formation of the thoracic diaphragm
thoracic cavity superior to the diaphragm
abdominopelvic cavity inferior to the diaphragm
thoracic diaphragm a muscular partition that develops between these cavities
serous membranes composed of 2 layers: parietal & visceral
parietal layer lines the internal surface of the body wall
visceral layer covers the external surface of organs (viscera) within the cavity
abdominal region region inferior to the thorax (chest) and superior to the hip bones
antebrachial region forearm (the portion of the upper limb between the elbow and wrist)
antecubital region region in front of the elbow
axillary region armpit
brachial region arm (the portion of the upper limb between the shoulder and the elbow)
buccal region cheek
calcaneal region heel of the foot
carpal region wrist
cephalic region head
cervical region neck
coxal region hip
cranial region skull
crural region leg
deltoid region shoulder
digital region fingers or toes (also called phalanges)
dorsal region back
facial region face
femoral region thigh
frontal region forehead
gluteal region buttock
hallux region great toe
inguinal region groin
lumbar region loin
mammary region breast
manus region hand
mental region chin
nasal region nose
occipital region posterior base of the head
olecranal region posterior of the elbow
oral region mouth
orbital region eye
palmar region palm of hand
patellar region kneecap
pelvic region pelvis
perineal region region between the anus and the external reproductive organs
pes region foot
plantar region sole of the foot
pollex region thumb
popliteal region area posterior to the knee
pubic region anterior region of the pelvis
sacral region posterior region between the hip bones
scapular region shoulder blade
sternal region middles of the thorax, anteriorly
sural region calf
tarsal region ankle
thoracic region chest or thorax
umbilical region navel
vertebral region spinal column
pleura two-layered serous membrane that lines organs of the thoracic cavity
parietal pleura the outer layer of the pleura; it lines the internal surface of the thoracic wall
visceral pleura the inner layer of the pleura; it covers the external surface of the lung
abdominal cavity superior to the hips bone
pelvic cavity inferior to the hip bones
peritoneum two-layered serous membrane that lines the abdominopelvic cavity
parietal peritoneum outer layer of the serous membrane that lines the internal walls of the abdominopelvic cavity
visceral peritoneum the inner layer of the serous membrane that covers the external surfaces of most digestive organs
peritoneal cavity lubricating serous fluid is located
abdominopelvic regions nine compartments delineated by two transverse planes and two parasagittal planes
epigastric region the superior region in the middle column, typically containing part of the liver, part of the stomach, the duodenum, part of the pancreas, and both adrenal glands
umbilical region the middle region in the middle column typically contains the transverse colon (middle part), part of the small intestine, and the branches of the blood vessels to the lower limbs
hypogastric region the inferior region in the middle column, typically contains part of the small intestine, the urinary bladder, and the sigmoid colon of the large intestine
right and left hypochondriac regions superior regions lateral to epigastric region; right hypochondriac region contains part of liver, gallbladder, and part of right kidney; left hypochondriac region contains part of stomach, spleen, left colic flexure of lg intestine, part of left kidney
right and left lumbar regions middle regions lateral to umbilical region; right lumbar region contains ascending colon & right colic flexure of lg intestine, superior part of cecum, part of rt kidney, part of sm intestine; lt lumbar region contains descending colon, part of lt kidney,
Created by: lharbridge