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Intro. Sociology

Based on the Introductory Sociology CLEP book by REA, parts 8-12

Deviance A departure from a norm.
Stigma The mark of social disgrace that sets the deviant apart from other members of society who regard themselves as normal.
Primary deviance Behavior violating a norm.
Secondary deviance The behavior that results from the social response to deviance.
The "conformist" Seeks to continue the acceptance of the goals and means offered for their attainment.
The "innovator" May continue to accept the goals while seeking new, and in many cases, illegitimate revenues for the attainment of these goals.
The "ritualist" May make the means into and end by rejecting the culturally prescribed goals as being out of his reach.
The "retreat" Rejects both the means and ends offered by society by dropping into drug use, mental illness, alcoholism, or homelessness.
The "rebellious" Reject both the means and ends while seeking to replace both with alternatives, thereby changing the way society as a whole is structured.
Kinship The introduction of symbolic meaning or value to actual or imagined blood ties.
Marriage This social institution, found in every society, is generally seen as a social group consisting of two or more people, related by marriage, blood, or adoption, who often reside together.
Nuclear family Consists of people of the opposite sex who are in a socially approved union and living with their children.
Extended family A family in which the notion of consanguinity has been extended beyond the immediate family to those families who are indirectly linked by blood.
Patriarchy A family in which the father is in the place of highest authority.
Matriarchy A family in which the mother is in the place of highest authority.
Endogamy Marriage within certain groups.
Exogamy Marriage outside certain groups.
Monogamy Having one spouse at a time.
Serial monogamy Follows the pattern of marriage, divorce, then remarriage.
Polygamy Having more than one spouse at a time.
Polygyny Having more than one wife at a time.
Polyandry Having more than one husband at a time.
Group marriage A marriage between two or more men and two or more women.
Patrilocality When newlyweds reside with the husband's extended family.
Matrilocality When newlyweds reside with the wife's extended family.
Neolocality When newlyweds reside in a new or separate residence.
Levirate Obliges a man to marry his brother's widow or suffer disgrace.
Primogeniture A transmission of property to the eldest son.
Utimogeniture A transmission of property to the youngest son.
Division of labor The manner in which work is divided among individuals and groups specialized in particular economic activities.
Capitalism A type of economic system in which there is private ownership of the means of producing and distributing goods and services.
Socialism A type of economic system in which there is public ownership of the means of producing and distributing goods and services.
Primary sector Involved in the extraction of raw materials and natural resources.
Secondary sector Involved in turning the raw materials acquired through primary production onto the manufactured goods we use, such as furniture, cars, and homes.
Tertiary (or service) sector Involved in providing services in such areas as health, education, safety, and entertainment.
The barter system Consists of the direct exchange of some goods or services for others judged to be of equivalent value.
Free-market system A system of exchanging goods and services in which value is determined by supply and demand.
Traditional authority Based on long-held and sacred customs.
Rational-legal authority Stems from within the framework of a body of laws that have been duly enacted.
Charismatic authority Based on the extraordinary, uncanny, and supernatural powers or abilities that have been associated with a certain person.
Authoritarian government A form of government in which rulers tolerate little to no opposition to their authority.
Totalitarian government A form of government in which there are in principle no recognizable limits to authority that rulers are willing to acknowledge.
Democratic government A form of government in which authority ultimately lies with the people, whose participation in government is considered a right.
Political party An organization seeking to gain control of government through legitimate means.
Interest group A group or organization seeking to influence political decisions that may affect their members.
Religion A theory, creed, or body of dogma that seeks to comprehend the universe and man's place in it, God or the gods, as well as the supernatural realm.
Religions have been linked with: codes of ethics, personality, historical condition, theodicy
Sacred The sphere of ideas, activities, persons, objects, abilities, and experiences hat have been deemed holy, divine, supernatural, or mystical and, hence, unalterable.
Profane The visceral sphere of objects, persons, and behaviors capable of being understood and of being altered.
Cult A small group of followers surrounding a charismatic religious leader.
Sect Does not depend on the kind of personal inspiration offered by a charismatic leader for its continuity.
Church Some claim universal membership over those born into it, and they can only leave it through expulsion.
World religion Is understood as "a system of life regulation" capable of attracting a multitude of constituents.
Created by: mjalldrin