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6th grade - Chapters 1-4

What word means to revolve around? orbit
What is a symmetrically shaped oval? ellipse
What are the two central points inside an ellipse? foci
What is the distance between the earth and the sun known as? an astronomical unit
What is the force of attraction that exists between any two objects? gravity
What are the largest heavenly bodies that orbit the sun, and the name means the "wanderers"? planets
What is made up of the sun and all the heavenly bodies that orbit it? the solar system
How many days are in a solar year? 365 1/4
What is the blanket of air that makes the earth hospitable for living thing? atmosphere
What is the region of the atmosphere, located between 10 to 30 miles above the surface of the earth, which filters out most of the sun's ultraviolet radiation? ozone layer
What do we call the ability of the atmosphere to retain heat around the earth? greenhouse effect
What are the dark patches on the moon's surface once thought to be seas but now known to be rolling plains called? maria
What is the period of time it takes for the moon to revolve around the earth called? lunar month
What occurs when the moon passes directly behind the earth, and the earth blocks the sunlight from the moon, causing it to appear darkened? lunar eclipse
What occurs when the moon blocks the sun from our view? solar eclipse
What are the asteroids located in the inner solar system which cross paths with the earth called? near-Earth asteroids
What is the amount of time it takes for a comet to complete its orbit called? period
What happens when the earth passes through a cluster of meteoroids? meteor shower
What are the first four inner planets? Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
What are the five outer planets? Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto
Who believed in an earth-centered universe (an ancient Greek astronomer)? Claudius Ptolemy
Who believed in a sun-centered universe (a Polish astronomer)? Nicolaus Copernicus
Who formulated the three laws of planetary motion? Johannes Kepler
What English scientist discovered gravity and developed the law of universal gravity? Sir Isaac Newton
What phase of the moon displays the most light? full moon
What phase of the moon seems to hide, because you cannot see its sunlit side? new moon
What lunar phase is when the moon is half dark and half light? quarter (1st and 3rd)
What lunar phase is found when the moon's shape bulges but is not quite round? gibbous
What lunar phase may appear like a tiny sliver? crescent
What tides occur when the sun and the moon are at right angles to the earth? neap tides
What tide occurs when the moon is in line with the earth and sun? spring tide
What is a single orbit around the sun or another heavenly body? revolution
What is the spinning of the earth or other object? rotation
What do we call a band of comet-like objects that are located beyond the orbit of Neptune? Kuiper's belt
What is the band of asteroids located between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter? asteroid belt
What are little "planets" ranging in size from a few hundred mils across to the size of a house? asteroids
What are pieces of space debris that are smaller than the smallest asteroid? meteoroid
What is a meteor that enters earth's atmosphere and hits the earth? meteorite
What is a meteoroid that enters earth's atmosphere? meteor
What do we call an asteroid-sized chunk of rock, dust, and ice that develops a huge, bright "tail" as it approaches the sun? comet
What are the three parts of a comet? nucleus, coma and tail
What is an invertebrate that has an external skeleton, a segmented body, and jointed appendages called? arthropod
What is the process in which an insect sheds its external skeleton is called? molting
What is the process of arranging animals or other things into groups according to their similarities called? classification
What has the ability to regenerate lost body parts and has strong pinchers? crustaceans
What has two distinct body regions and eight legs? spiders
What has three pairs of jointed legs and one or more pair of wings? insects
What part of an insect helps it to feel, hear, and taste? antennae
What is the scientific name use to identify animals? genus and species
Spiders have two distinct body regions, what are they? abdomen and cephalothorax
Name the 3 distinct body regions all insects have. head, thorax, abdomen
What is a scientist who studies insects called? entomologists
Most insects undergo a transformation in appearance known as? metamorphosis
What part of a flower makes and holds pollen? stamen
What part of a flower encloses and protects a developing flower? sepal
What part of a flower holds the undeveloped seeds? ovary
What part of a flower attracts bees? petals
What part of the flower becomes a fruit? ovary
What are the parts of a flower? sepal, petal, stamen, pistil, stigma, ovary, ovule
What is the chemical process by which a plant produces food? photosynthesis
What is the transfer of pollen from the stamen to the pistil called? pollination
What is the process in which an egg stored inside an ovule unites with a sperm cell from a grain of pollen? fertilization
What is the pigment that gives a plant its green color? chlorophyll
The part of the seed that is a miniature plant is called? embryo
What do we call a person who studies plants? botanist
Where does photosynthesis occur? photosynthesis takes place in the leaves of the plant
What is the purpose of photosynthesis? the purpose of photosynthesis is to make food for the plant
What three ingredients are necessary for photosynthesis to occur? water, air, and light
What two conditions are needed for a seed to sprout? moisture and warmth
Describe the lily family. petals grow in multiples of 3 / grows from bulbs
Describe the pea family. has 5 petals (one large and four small) / fruit grow in pods
Describe the grass family. has small flowers and two-part leaves / reproduces without flowers
Describe the rose family. petals grow in multiples of 5 / includes apples and cherries
Describe the composite family. largest flowering family / two types of flowers make up the "one" flower
What is the smallest of all green plants? algae
What are the green plants that have no true leaves, stems, or roots? mosses
A plant that does not die after one season of growth but continues to live and grow for many seasons is called? perennial
A plant that lives for two years and then dies is called? biennial
A plant that lives for only one season of growth is called? annual
What type of trees bear cones instead of flowers? conifers
What type of trees keep their leaves year round, even in the winter? evergreens
What type of tree lose their leaves in the fall? deciduous
What are scientist who study trees called? dendrologist
Describe the amoeba. has no definite shape/ moves by means of pseudopods / uses pseudopods to engulf food / must live in water / some parasitic amoebas cause diseases
Monstrous waved caused by earthquakes are called? tsunamis
What is a break that appears at te boundary between two moving masses calle? fault
What is defined as any trembling or shaking of the earth's crust? earthquake
What type of weathering occurs when natural acids slowly eat into a rock, breaking it apart? chemical weathering
Scientists who study the structure of the earth are called? geologists
What is the study of earthquakes? seismology
What is magma that has reached the earth's surface called? lava
What are the 3 types of volcanoes? shield, cinder cone, composite
What are the 3 main sections of the earth? crust, mantle, core
What is the outermost layer of the earth, which is quite thin compared to the other layers? crust
What is the middle layer o the earth, which makes up the largest portion, and is made of solid rock? mantle
What is the innermost region of the earth, made up of liquid and solid? core
What type of rock is formed when molten rock solidifies? igneous
What type of rock is formed from sand and mineral fragments that have been pressed together? sedimentary
What type of rock has been change by extreme heat or pressure into a new kind of rock? metamorphic
Over 75% of the earth's surface is covered with what type of rock? sedimentary
What is the most common igneous rock found everywhere on land? granite
Which sedmentary rock is used to make glass? sandstone
What metamorphic rock is very beautiful and most widely used, and began as limestone? marble
What is the study of caves called? speleology
What are the different cave formations? draperies, cave pearls, stalagmites, stalactites, columns, flowstones, soda straws
What are the three basic types of galaxies? spiral, elliptical, irregular
What are stars that outline a picture in the sky called? constellation
What are large clouds of gas and dust floating around in space called? nebulae
What is the brightest star in the night sky? Sirius
What is the pole star or north star? Polaris
What is the closest star to the earth? the sun
What is a star system containing millions to billions of stars? galaxy
How far away is the sun from the earth? 93 million miles
What is the actual explosion of a star? supernova
What is apparent magnitude? the brightness of a star as it appears from Earth
What is absolute magnitude? the actual brightness of a star
Describe what space is like. no air (a vacuum) / no air friction / mostly black / weightlessness / extremes of temperature
Identify the following constellations. Andromeda, Cassiopeia, Centaurus, Cygnus, Draco, Orion, Pegasus, Perseus, Sagittarius, Taurus
What is the study of outer space and all that it contains? astronomy
Created by: kbtarheelgirl