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Communications Ch 3

Perceiving and communicating w/ others

The process of assigning meaning to sensory information and experiences, of others guide the way we talk to and about them Perceptions
Self concept, past experiences, physical abilities, personality, and social environment are __________ that influence _________. Factors; Perception
What are the 3 steps in the process of forming perceptions: 1)Selection 2)Organization 3)Interpretation
__________ occurs when we focus on some sensory stimuli rather than others. Selection
___________ refers to personal relevance or interest and our choices of what is worthy of attention Salience
During step 1 of forming perceptions (selection) __________ includes all sensations that seem to stand out from their surroundings. Vividness
__________ __________ is the general theory that we learn new behaviors, customs, and routines by watching others. Social Learning
The resistance to change and the tendency to maintain the same perceptions of people and events over time is ____________ __________. Perceptual Constancy
The 2nd step in forming a perception, _________, occurs when we place stimuli in a category or mental box to give them meaning and aid our retention. Organization
During organization (step 2), ____________ suggests that people interpret and act on experience based on a mental system of organizing knowledge. Constructivism
___________ __________ are categories by which people and events can be differentiated during Constructivism. Personal Constructs
A ___________ is an ideal model or specific person, personality or phenomenon that exemplifies a set of characteristics during constructivism. Prototype
During constructivism, __________ are generalizations about people based on their group affiliations, rather than their individual characteristics. Stereotypes
__________ are guides to actions and expectations based on the way we have categorized our perceptions. Scripts
While organizing perceptions, __________ __________ are strategies for thinking creatively and managing different perspectives. Perception Shifts
When would perception shifts occur? When people are willing to take risks and alter the way they see the world.
What can significantly speed up perception shifts? New technologies
The 3rd step in forming perceptions, ___________, is the stage in the perception process in which we determine the meaning of an event or interaction. Interpretation
_________ can often help us to interpret the meaning of someone's statement or actions and __________ allows us to draw conclusions based on unfinished, incomplete or limited information. Context; Closure
While interpreting perceptions, assigning ____________ refers to the assignment of meaning to the actions of ourselves and others. Attribution
What are the 2 types of attributions? Internal and external
While interpreting perceptions, __________ in attribution can hamper our communication effectiveness because they lock us into narrow ways of understanding and responding to others. Biases
Biases in attribution: _____________ _____________ _______ is the overestimation of the degree to which other people's behaviors are due to internal factors and underestimating the significance of external forces. Fundamental Attribution Error
Another bias in attribution is _______-__________ _______: the tendency to attribute external causes to our own misfortune but not to those of others. Self-serving Bias
The 3rd bias in attribution while interpreting perceptions is _____________ _________: the tendency to think better of attractive people than unattractive people and to make positive attributions about their behavior. Attractiveness bias
The last bias in attribution is _________ _______ which is the attribution of our own motivations to someone else's behaviors. Similarity Bias
What are the 4 bias in attribution during interpretation of perceptions? 1)Fundamental Attribution Error 2)Self-serving Bias 3)Attractiveness Bias 4)Similarity Bias
Communicating responsibly requires perception guidelines. The first perception guideline is to _______ _______ ____________. Own your perceptions
Being able to recognize why your perceptions might be different than your audience and that others may not share your perceptions are guides to ___________ __________ __________. Owning Your Perceptions
The 2nd perception guideline is to ___________ ______________ __________. Overcome Attributional Bias
Another perception guideline for communicating responsibly is to use __________ _____________ _________. User perception checks
This is a tool that gauges the accuracy of your perceptions by engaging in conversations with others. Perception Check tool
How would you be able to use a perception check tool? 1)Describe the behavior you've observed 2)Acknowledge that there is more than one way to interpret the behavior 3)Ask for clarification
The last perception guideline is to practice _____________ __________. Perspective Taking
The ability to accurately perceive the experience and behavior of another person is practicing ____________. Empathy
Our __________ form the basis of interpretation about ourselves and others and we communicate based on those interpretations. Perceptions
____________ is also affected by the cultural context of interaction Perception
We rely on ____________ to assign meaning to the behavior of others. Attributions
_____________ are the basis for decisions about how to communicate appropriately and effectively because how we perceive people or events will influence our responses to them. Perceptions
__________ is the audience use of conceptual categories that have been emphasized in the media. Priming
____________ is the stage of perception in which we determine the meaning of an event or interaction. Interpretation
__________ is the assignment of meaning to the actions of ourselves and others. Attribution
Created by: foster1317