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Nutr 210 (Ch.1-3)

Terms from Contemporary Issues in Nutr

nutrition the science of how living organisms obtain and use food to support processes required for life
nutritional scientist a person who conducts and/or evaluates nutrition-related research
dietitian a nutritionist who helps people make healthy dietary choices
nutritional sciences a broad spectrum of academic and social disciplines related to nutrition
nutrient a substance in foods used by the body for nrg, maintenance of body structures, or regulation of chemical processes
essential nutrient a substance that must be obtained from the diet, because the body needs it and cannot make it in required amounts
nonessential nutrient a substance found in food and used by the body to promote health but not required to be consumed in the diet
conditionally essential nutrient normally nonessential nutrient that, under certain circumstances, becomes essential
macronutrient nutrients that we need to consume in large amounts(more than 1 gram)
micronutrient nutrients that we need to consume in small amounts (less than 1 gram)
organic compound a substance that contains c-c bonds and c-h bonds
inorganic compound a substance that does not contain c-c bonds and c-h bonds
certified organic foods plant and animal foods that have been grown, harvested, and processed w/o conventional pesticides, fertilizers, growth promoters, bioengineering, or ionizing radiation
phytochemical a substance found in plants and thought to benefit human health above and beyond the provision of essential nutrients and nrg
zoonutrient a substance found in animal foods and though to benefit human health above and beyond the provision of essential nutrients and nrg
functional food a food that contains enhanced levels of an essential nutrient, phytochemical, or zoonutrient and thought to benefit human health
nrg capacity to do work
ATP a chemical used by body to perform work
nrg-yielding nutrient a nutrient that the body can use to produce ATP
calorie a unit of measure used to express the amount of nrg in a food
kilocalorie 1,000 calories
bomb calorimeter a device used to measure the amount of nrg in a food
scientific method steps used by scientists to explain observations
hypothesis a prediction about the relationship between variables
cause-and-effect relationship when an alteration in one variable causes a change in another variable
correlation when a change in onevariable is related to a change in another variable
positive correlation association between the changes of two variables are similar
negative correlation association between the changes of two variables are in the opposite direction
simple relationship a relationship between 2 factors that is not influenced or modified by another factor
complex relationship a relationship that involves one or more interactions
interaction when the relationship between the two factors is influenced or modified by another factor
lifestyle factor behavioral component of our lives over which we may or may not have control
environmental factor an element or variable in our surroundungs over which we may or may not have control
genetic factor an inherited element or variable in our lives that cannot be altered
epidemiologic study a study in which data are collected from a group of individuals who are not asked to change their behaviors in any way
Framingham Heart Study a large epidemiologic study begun in the 1940's designed to assess the relationship between lifestyle factors and risk for heart disease
National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey(NHANES) a federally funded epidemiologic study begun in the 1970's to assess trends in diet and health in the U.S. population
National Center for Health Statistics(NCHS) a component of the U.S. Public Health Service whose mission is to compile statistical info to be used in improving the health of Americans
intervention study an experiment in which something is altered or changes ti determine its effect on something else
control group a group of people, animals, or cells in an intervention study that does not receive the experimental treatment
Hawthorne effect phenomenon in which study results are influenced by an unintentional alteration of a behavior by the study participants
placebo effect the phenomenon in which there is an apparent effect of the treatment because the individual expects or believes that it will work
researcher bias when the researcher influences that results of a study
single-blind study a human experiment in which the participants do not know to which group they have been assigned
dbl-blind study a human experiment in which neither the participants nor the scientists know to which group the participants have been assigned
placebo a "fake" treatment, given to the control group, that cannot be distinguished from the actual treatment
random assignment when study participants have equal chance of being assigned to each experimental group
confounding variable a factor, other than the one of interest, that might influence the outcome of an experiment
animal study the use of experimental animals such as mice, rats, or primates in a study
cell culture system specific type of cells that can be grown in the lab and used for research purposes
in vitro involving the use of cells or environments that are not part of a living organism
in vivo involving the study of natural phenomena in a living organism
PubMed a computerized database that allows access to approximately 11 million biomedical journal citations
U.S. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention(CDC) a governmental agency that monitors the nation's health in order to prevent and control disease outbreaks
rate a measure of the occurrence of a certain type of event within a specific period of time
mortality rate the number of deaths in a given period of time
infant mortality rate the number of infant deaths (<1 year of age) per 1,000 live births in a given year
morbidity rate the number of illnesses in a given period of time
incidence the number of people who are newly diagnosed with a condition in a given period of time
prevalence the total number of people who have a condition in a given period of time
life expectancy a statistical prediction of the average number of years of life remaining to a person at a specific age
graying of America the phenomenon occurring in the U.S. in which the proportion of elderly individuals in the population is increasing with time
disease a condition that causes physiological or psychological discomfort, dysfunction, or distress
infectious disease a contagious illness caused by a pathogen such as a bacteria, virus, or parasite
noninfectious disease an illness that is not contagious
etiology the cause or origin of a disease
autoimmune disease a condition in which the immune system attacks an otherwise healthy part of the body
chronic degenerative disease a noninfectious disease that develops slowly and persists over time
risk factor a lifestyle, environmental, or genetic factor related to a person's chances of developing a disease
nutrition transition the shift from undernutrition to overnutrition or unbalanced nutrition that often occurs simultaneously with the industrialization of a society
Created by: syfisher