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Ch 3 Cells PF/SF

cyt- cell
endo- within
hyper- above
hypo- below
inter- between
iso- equal
mit- thread
phag- to eat
pino- to drink
-som body
cytoplasm the contents of a cell, excluding the nucleus and cell membrane
cytosol clear liquid in the cytoplasm.
cytoskeleton a cell's microscopic framework of protein filaments and tubules
organelles a part of a cell that performs a specialized function
endoplasmic reticulum organelle composed of a system of connected membranous tubules and vesicles along which protein is synthesized
ribosomes organelle composed of RNA and protein that is a structural support for protein synthesis and includes RNA molecules that function as enzymes
golgi apparatus an organelle that prepares cellular products for secretion
mitochondria organelle housing enzymes that catalyze the reactions of aerobic respiration
lysosomes organelle that contains digestive enzymes
peroxisomes a small organelle that is present in the cytoplasm of many cells and that contains the reducing enzyme catalase and usually some oxidases.
centrosome cellular organelle consisting of two centrioles
cilia microscopic, hairlike processes on the exposed surfaces of certain epithelial cells
flagella motile tail-like structure on sperm cell
vesicle membranous cytoplasmic sac formed by infolding of the cell membrane
nucleolus a small structure within the cell nucleus that contains RNA and proteins
chromosome rodlike structure that condenses from chromatin in a cell's nucleus during mitosis
chromatin DNA and complexed protein that condenses to form chromosomes during mitosis
simple diffusion Process by which molecules or ions scatter or spread spontaneously from regions where they are in higher concentrations toward regions where they are in lower concentrations.
facilitated diffusion diffusion in which carrier molecules or ion channels transport substances across membranes from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.
osmosis diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane in response to a concentration gradient.
isotonic a solution with the same osmotic pressure as the solution with which it is compared
hypertonic a solution with a greater osmotic pressure than the solution with which it is compared
hypotonic a solution with a lower osmotic pressure than the solution with which it is compared
hydrostatic pressure pressure exerted by fluids, such as blood pressure
edema fluid accumulation within tissue spaces
active transport process that requires energy to move a substance across a cell membrane, usually against the concentration gradient
endocytosis Process by which a cell membrane envelops a substance and draws it into the cell in a vesicle.
exocytosis Transport of substances out of a cell in membrane bounded vesicles.
pinocytosis Process by which a cell engulfs droplets of fluid from its surroundings.
phagocytosis Process by which a cell engulfs and digests solids.
mitosis Division of a somatic cell nucleus in the process of forming two genetically identical cells.
meiosis Cell division that halves the genetic material, resulting in egg and sperm cells
gametogenesis first part of meiosis; the formation of egg cells and sperm cells.
cytokinesis Division of cytoplasm.
interphase of cell cycle the phase of the cell cycle in which the cell spends the majority of its time and performs the majority of its purposes including preparation for cell division.
prophase Stage of mitosis when chromosomes become visible.
metaphase Stage in mitosis when chromosomes align in the middle of the cell.
anaphase Stage in mitosis when duplicate chromosomes move to opposite poles of cell.
telophase Stage in mitosis when newly formed cells separate.
cell differentiation Process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type.
stem cell An undifferentiated cell that can divide to yield two daughter stem cells, or a stem cell and a progenitor cell.
progenitor cell A daughter cell of a stem cell that is partially specialized.
apoptosis Programmed cell death.
metastasis the spread of a cancer from one organ or part to another non-adjacent organ or part.
hyperplasia Excess cell division in a tissue.
Created by: hannahpiper