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Science Ch 4 Vocab

cell membrane the semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell
cell wall a rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma membrane of the cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria.
chloroplasts a plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.
chromatin the material of which the chromosomes of organisms other than bacteria (i.e., eukaryotes) are composed.
chromosome a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
cytoplasm the material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus.
deoxyribonucleic acid a biological molecule found in the cell nucleus that carries genetic information.
endoplasmic reticulum a network of membrane-covered chemicals within a cell that transports materials
enzymes a substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction.
gene a unit of heredity that is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some characteristic of the offspring
gene mutation a change in the specific order of the A, G, C, and T bases that make up a particular gene.
gene therapy techniques developed to alter mutated genes in order to make them function normally.
Golgi Body a complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells, involved in secretion and intracellular transport.
hormones a regulatory substance produced in an organism and transported in tissue fluids such as blood or sap to stimulate specific cells or tissues into action.
mitochondria an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur.
mutagens substances or factors that can cause mutation in DNA.
negative mutation a mutation that harms a an organism or reduces the probability that organisms with the mutation can produce offspring or survive in their environment.
neutral mutation a mutation that does not affect the organism or does not increase or decrease the survival rate of the organism
nuclear membrane the thin outer membrane that surrounds the cell nucleus
nuclear pores openings in the nuclear membrane that allow only certain materials into and out of the nucleus.
nucleolus a small dense spherical structure in the nucleus of a cell during interphase.
nucleus the central and most important part of an object, movement, or group, forming the basis for its activity and growth
organelle any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.
positive mutation a mutation that benefits an organism
proteins any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms
ribosome a minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells.
vacuoles a space or vesicle within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane and typically containing fluid.
vesicles membrane covered sacs that form off the ends of endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi body an that transport proteins, nutrients, and water into, out of and around the inside of a cell
Created by: jacob.harris