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Stack #1150046

Chapter 9 Vocabulary

Heredity the transmission of traits (inherited features) from one generation to the next
Genetics the scientific study of heredity; began with the work of Gregor Mendel in the 19th century
Character a heritable feature that varies among individuals within a population
Trait a variant of a character found within a population
Self-Fertilize a form of reproduction that involves fusion of sperm and egg produced by the same individual organism
Cross-Fertilization the fusion of sperm and egg derived from two different individuals
True-Breeding referring to organisms for which sexual reproduction produces offspring with inherited traits identical to those of the parents
Hybrid an offspring of parents of two different species or two different varieties of one species
P Generation the parent individuals from which offspring are derived in studies of inheritance
Monohybrid Cross an experimental mating of individuals differing in a single character
Homozygous having two identical alleles for a given gene
Heterozygous having two different alleles for a given gene
Dominant Allele the allele that determines the phenotype of a gene when the individual is heterozygous for that gene
Recessive Allele an allele that has no noticeable effect on the phenotype of a gene when the individual is heterozygous for that gene
Law of Segregation a general rule in inheritance that individuals have two alleles for each gene and that when gametes form by meiosis, the two alleles separate, each resulting gamete ending up with only one allele of each gene
Punnett Square a diagram used in the study of inheritance to show the results of random fertilization
Phenotype the expressed traits of an organism
Genotype the genetic makeup of an organism
Locus the particular site where a gene is found on a chromosome
Dihybrid Cross an experimental mating of individuals differing in two characters
Law of Independent Assortment a general rule of inheritance that when gametes form during meiosis, each pair of alleles for a particular characteristic segregate independently of other pairs
Rule of Multiplication a rule stating that the probability of a compound event is the product of the separate probabilities of the independent events
Rule of Addition a rule stating that the probability that an event can occur in two or more alternative ways is the sum of the separate probabilities of the different ways
Wild-Type Trait the version of a character that most commonly occurs in nature
Pedigree a family genetic tree representing the occurrence of heritable traits in parents and offspring across a number of generations
Carrier an individual who is heterozygous for a recessively inherited disorder and who therefore does not show symptoms of that disorder but who may pass on the recessive allele to offspring
Complete Dominance a type of inheritance in which the phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are indistinguishable
Incomplete Dominance a type of inheritance in which the phenotype of a heterozygote is intermediate between the phenotypes of the two types of homozygotes
Codominant inheritance pattern in which a heterozygote expresses the distinct trait of both alleles
Pleiotropy the control of more than one phenotypic characteristic by a single gene
Polygenic Inheritance the additive effects of two or more gene loci on a single phenotypic characteristic
Linked Genes genes located near each other on the same chromosome that tend to be inherited together
Recombination Frequency with respect to two given genes, the number of recombinant progeny from a mating divided by the total number of progeny
Sex-Linked Gene a gene located on a sex chromosome
Created by: ValkrieWren