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folded membrane containing the green photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll Thylakoids
eukaryotic cell division mitosis
allow movement of molecules in the cytoplasm microfilaments
name the infungal cell membrane -ergosterol (remember various sterols within membrane increase stability)
name of mammalion cell membrane -cholesterol (remember various sterols will increase stability)
maintain shapes of the cell and enable movement of molecules within the cell microtubules
formation during mushroom sexual reproduction basidiospore -note: picture on slide look at and know
how does the ascus grow? -only grows one way in shape due to space constraint -alienated know which round of meiosis to show up
sexual spores produced in a sac-like structure called "ascus" ascospores
How are sexual spores formed? involves the fusion of two parental nuclei followed by meiosis -note: picture on slide with formation of zgospores
looks kind of like a dandilion a conidium of Aspergillus
-produced at tip of reproductive space bearing structure one filament under going figmentall conidiospores
-formed within an enclosed sporangium -one cell goes many rounds of mitosis cytoplasm reproduce each nucleus surrounded by cells membrane sporangiospores
How are asexual spores formed? during mitotic division of a single parental cell [Remember 2 types: sporangiospores and conidiospores]
spore types (especially sexual spores are important criteria for) ___________ fungal identification
sexual spores zygospores, basidiospores, and ascospores (offspring originated from 2 cells)
asexual spores sporangiospores and conidiospores (one cell produce having identical cells)
Fungi reproduce through 1._______ and 2.________ spores 1. sexual 2. asexual
The stages in coccidiodes infection: 1. Mold spores of Coccidiodes immitis are inhaled from soil 2. In lungs C. immitis changes and grows as yeast cell 3. the development of coccidiodomycosis
fungal dimorphism -for some fungi, both yeast and mold phases can be observed depending on growth conditions -e.g. some pathogenic mold exists as mold in the environment, but as yeast after entering the host tissues: M -> Y shift (temp. determinant)
Majority of fungal species is found in what form? -mold or yeast not both
produces spores for reproduction -Reproductive hyphae
digest and absorb nutrients Vegetative hyphae
no cross wall hyphae -nonseptate hyphae -don't have septa Ex: Rhizopus
segmented and seperated by a cross wall hyphae septate hyphae -have septa Ex: Penicillium
_____ may or may not divided by cross walls (septum) -filaments of cells hyphae
molds (macroscopically and microscopically) macroscopically: -cottony, hairy, or velvety texture microscopically: -hyphae -mycelium
Pseudohypha -in yeasts -can form as a result of cells not completely separated during budding
mass of hyphae mycelium
Yeasts (macroscopically and microscopically) macroscopically: these colonies have soft, uniform texture appearance microscopically: usually single cells Psudohypha can form use fission or budding reproductive process
disease caused by a fungal pathogen mycosis
What is the study of fungi called? mycology
1. Medical importance of fungi 2. Industrially important 1. Ex: athlete's foot caused by dermatophytes 2. Ex: alcohol fermentation using yeast
What are the two morphologies of microscopic fungi? 1. unicellular (yeasts) 2. filamentous (molds)
Fungi properties 1. Ubiquitous in nature: mushrooms-macroscopic molds, yeasts-microscopic 2.there are two morphologies of microscopic fungi
true fungi eumycetes
Classification of Eummycetes ("True Fungi") based on rRNA 1.Chytridiomycota 2.Zygomycota 3.Asconycota 4.Basidiomycota
aquatic fungi linked to amphibian die-off -primitive, has flagellated zoospores Chytridiomycetes
eumycetes contains 2 subkingdoms: 1.Mastigomycota: Chytridiomycetes -primitive, has flagelled zoospores 2.Amastigomycota (most fungi)
Fungi Classification 3 divisions (phylum) named after the type of ___________ -sexual spores 1. Zygomycota 2. Ascomycota 3. Basidiomycota
Zygomycota zygospores; mostly sporangiospores (few conidia); nonseptate hyphae e.g. Rhizopus, Mucor
Ascomycota -ascospores; conidia; septate hyphae -e.g.. Staphybotrys chartarum (the sick-building mold) Penicillium and Sacharomyces cerevisiae(small note:Baker/Brewer's yeast)
Basidiomycota basidiospores; conidia e.g. mushrooms, Cryptococcus (a pathogenic yeast causing brain infections in AIDS patients)
The black bread mold ________ belons to the Phylum________ -Rhizopus -Zygomycota
the sick-building syndrome black mold ________ belongs to __________ -Stachybotrys chartarum -Ascomycota
no sexual spores observed, most now classified as Ascomycetes using genetic method; have conidia e.g. Penicillium Aspergillus Deuteromycetes or Fungi Imperfecti -not able to reproduce sexually (looks like an x-ray of a hand)
Fungal nutrition all are __________: relying on _________ source -heterotrophic -organic carbon
Fungal nutrition: majority are harmless__________ living off ____and_____ -saprobes -dead plants and animals
Fungal nutrition: some are 1._______, living on the 2.________ of other 3.______, but none are 4._________ 1.parasites 2.tissues 3.organisms 4.obligate
Fungal nutrition: What is the growth temperature? 20°C-40°C
saprobes -can't eat large compound need to break down and transfer into cell -known for secreting a lot of enzymes to break it down
mycoses in human 1.From superficial (skin, nails, etc.) to systemic infections (Lung, Skin) 2. Usually through contact or inhalation of spores 3. Mostly skin infections
What is prevelent in Indiana? Histoplasmosis
conidia(sp?) -are a type of fungeal asexual spores
Algae 1. the photosynthetic protists, have chloroplasts 2. inhabitants of fresh and marine waters -Kelps, seaweeds, euglenids, green algae, diatoms, dinoflagellates, brown algae, and red seaweeds 3. Most are not considered human pathogens
Algae and Red tides -algal bloom overgrowth of algae often due to warm wheather or pollution -can cause die of aquatic organisims -can cause food poisoning: some algae produce toxins which accumulate in shellfish
Algae unique morphology enables identification cell wall, photosynthetic pigments, flagella, etc.
algae contain __________ as well as accessory _______ which include _____,______, and ______ 1. green chlorophyll 2. pigments 3. yellow 4. red 5. brown
protozoa "primitive animals" more complex structure and function most are unicellular no cell wall, more flexible in shape locomotion use cytoskeleton extension such as Pseudopods, flagella, and cilia
Protozoa Locomotion use cytoskeleton extension such as pseudopods, flagella, cilia
Protozoa Inhabitants of fresh water and soil -not photosynthetic -most are harmless, free-living in a moist habitat -some are animal parasites and can be spread by insect vectors
Most asexual reproduction involves 2 stages 1. Trophozoites -motile feeding stage 2.Cysts -dormant and resting stage formed during encystment Note: lifestyle pic powerpoint
Protozoa some involve both sexual and asexual stages Examples Ex: Mahria parasite Plasmodium
Trichomonas vainalis -example of complex structure with the protozoa Trichomonas vaginalis -no cyst stage -sexually transmited disense caused by protozoas lives only as a trophozite -asymptmptatic increase risk for other sexually transmitted diseases
Classification is difficult because of______ simple grouping is based on method of ______, _______,______ -diversity -motility -reproduction -life style
Mastigophora mainly flagellates -primarily flagellar motility, some flagellar and amoeboid; sexual reproduct; as well as asexual (cyst and trophozoite)
Sarcodina primarily amoeba -motile by pseudopods; asexual reproduction; most are free-living
Ciliophora -ciliates have cilia for motility; trophozoites and cysts; most are free-living, harmless
Apicomplexa -apicomplexans -motility is absent except male gantes; sexual and asexual reproduction; complex life cycle-cell parasite
4 different types of Protozoa 1. Amoeba 2. Ciliates 3. flagellates-Giardia 4. Apicomplexans
Amoeboid protozoa can cause can cause brain infections amoebic dysentery etc.
flagellated protozoa ex: Giardiasis
Apicomplexans protozoa ex: Malarin
Ingestion of cysts from _________cause damage in intestines food or water Trophozoites
Chegas disease involves a hemoflagellate protozoa (_______) reservoir host and insect vectors Trypanosoma cruzi -can live in many mammalian and insect hosts
Name an active feeding stage of protozoa development Trophozoite
Helminths -multicellular animals with organ-like systems -3 types
3 types of Helminths 1. Tapeworms 2. flukes 3. roundworms
Tapeworms and flukes are also called ______ thin usually segmented no body cavity -flatworms -each worm can harbor both sexes and fertilization occurs within one organism
hermaphroditic -flatworms are usually this -contain both female and male reproductive organs
Roundworms -nematodes -cylindrical -unsegmented
Trematodes or flukes are flattened nonsegmented worms with sucking mouthparts
cestodes tapeworm long, segmented
helminth Life Cycle -complex lifestyle involve egg, lava, adult worm stages 1. infective form 2. intermediate host 3. definitive host
Infective form eggs and larvae can develop in different hosts
Intermediate hosts larval development occurs
Definitive host adult worms and mating occur
Life cycle of intestinal fluke (_____). Snails are 1._______ while other mammals such as pigs or human are 2.________ (Fascilopsis) 1. intermediate hosts 2. definitive hosts
The ______ host harbors the adult stage of the helminths defenitive
vessicles derived from golgi apparatus Lysomes -give details ex: contain what? involve in what?
What is it? 1. flexible framework of proteins throughout the cell 2. name 2 types -Cytoskeleton 1. Microfilaments 2. Microtubules
human white blood cells lysosomes are involved in the killing of engulfed microbes phagocytes
name this site for protein modification cisternae-noncontians membrane network forms condensing csesicles golgi apparatus
coated with ribosomes the site of protein synthesis and transport inter the cistern Rough ER
Lipid synthesis Smooth ER
1.___ name converts energy of sunlight info chemical energy ATP on thylakoids "Light reaction" which is the used to synthesize 2.____ photosynthesis synthesize carbohydrates in the stroma (dark reaction)
name and explain orgin eucaryotic cells theory Endosymbiosis Theory 1. eucaryotic cells are evolved from procaryotic ancestors through the ingestion of and intracellular symbiosis w/: 1. small aerobic bacteria=> mitochondria 2.cyanobacteria=>chloroplasts
What holds the enzymes and electron carrier for aerobic sepiration in energy production? Cristae (inner membrane of mitochondria)
What does mitochondria contain? -own DNA and procaryotic type ribosomes
What is the powerhouse of the cell mitochondria
eucaryotic cell division involves ________ in which the cell and nucleus undergo several states of change mitosis
Algae cell walls vary greatly: don't list this ________ have "glassy" ______ cell wall diatoms have silicate
Eucaryotic cell membrane also contain membrane-bound ______ that account for 60-80% of their volanc(sp?) organelles
What does algae have that fungi do not? in cell wall chloroplast
Created by: mjoyriegsecker