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What is it called when it can be dissolved in water? such as NaCl hydrophilic
combination of two or more different elements compound
What are molecules? -atoms held together by chemical bonds -combination of two or more atoms
nature of chemical bonds-_________ electron interaction
Name 3 types of bonds -covalent -ionic -hydrogen
What is a covalent bond? -electrons are shared among the atoms w/in a molecule
equal sharing in covalent bond -nonpolar molecule -such as 02 molecule (0=0)
unequal sharing incovalent bond -polar molecule -such as H20 molecule (H-O-H) -polar molecules can interact w/ each other -important for solvent-solute interaction
What are ions -charged atoms or molecules
List 3 characteristics of ionic bonds. 1. electrons are transfered from one atom to another forming a positively charged cation and a negatively charged anion 2. two ions are held together by opposite charges 3. Ex: Na+ and Cl- forms strong interaction in salt (NaCl) via ionic bonds
How does hydrogen bond occur? hydrogen bond occurs between the small hydrogen atom and other bigger atoms (O&N in organic molecules)
True or False hydrophilic molecules can interact with water molecules (e.g. NaCl) True
When salt dissolves in water ________ happens -ionization (Na+ & Cl- ion are formed)
How does ionization occur? -ionic bonds broken up by the polar water molecules, producing separate anions and cations > salt is dissolved in water
the solvent is __________ the solute is __________ -water -what you dissolved
Is ethanol water soluble? Why? yes, because (CH3CH2OH) it has an OH group which interacts with water -many hydrophilic molecules are polar and can form H bond with water and these dissolve in water
Why can't fat dissolve in water? -because of the long carbohydrate chain (CH3CH2CH2CH2......COOH) -hydrophobic molecules do not form H bond with water molecules, therefore they "clump" in aqueous solutions
What is quaternary ammonian? -antimicrobial compound -cationic deterents
What does anionic detergent do? -negatively charged head interacts with water -tail inserts into the grease -common households detergents
How does cationic detergents work? -disinfectants more important if charged hand is positive -allows insert into membrane and kills bacteria
amphipathic molecules all have what? -charged head (hydrophilic) -hydrophobic tail - 2 types: anionic and cationic
a higher concentration of H+ means what? - higher acidity - proton indicator of acidity more protons more acidity
a higher concentration of OH- means what? -higher alkalinity10
In pure water ionization of H2O releases ______ and ________ give formula hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxyl ions (OH-) H20 >< H+ + OH- [H+]x[OH-]=10^(-14)
_______ is an invariable number at _______ no matter how acidic or alkaline the solution is. 1. 10^(-14) 2. 25°C
pH: 1.define it 2. If [H+]=10^(-5)M pH=______ 3.pH reflects concentration of _______ 4.normally pH scale ranges from _______ 1.pH=-log[H+] 2.pH=5 3.H+ ions 4. 0 to 14 (or [H=] from 10^(1) to 10^(-14))
General rules of pH for neutral, acidic, and basic (3) 1.Neutral=equal amounts of H= and OH- ions, pH=7 2. Acidic=more H+ ions then OH- ions in a solution pH<7 3.basic-more OH- ions than H+ in solution pH>7
Note: A low pH value gives a 1._________acidity (because of the 2.__________) 3.______fold difference in acidity when there is 1 pH unit change (because of the 4.________) 1.higher 2.negative "-" 3.10 4."log"
Test yourself: pH6= pH9= pH7= 10^(-6) moles H+/liter (M) acidic (10 fold more H+ than pH7) 10^-9 moles(M) H+/liter basic (100 fold less H+ than pH 7) H+ and OH- conc. are the same, 10^(-7)M, neutral
What is the fundamental element of life? Carbon -4 electrons in outer orbital -forms single, double, or triple covalent bonds -forms linear, branched, or ringed molecules
list the 2 functional groups and classes of organic compounds 1. carboxyl (R-C=0 -OH) 2. amino H (R-C-NH2) H
C or H is present but not both inorganic
C and H are both present organic
plants and algae use _______ carbon as nutrient inorganic
E. coli and human use _______ carbon as nutrient organic
List 3 types of inorganic molecules 1. carbon dioxide (CO2) 2. bicarbonate (NaHCO3) 3. carbon monoxide (CO)
List 3 types of organic molecules 1. Methane: CH4 2. Glucose: C6H1206 3. Acetic acid C2H402 -Lipids, proteins, sugars, DNA, etc.
Carbohydrates def. -also called sugars, general formula (CH20)n -monosacharides, disaccharides, and polymers
Carbohydrates function 1. structural protection (cell wall capsule) 2. nutrient and intracellular energy reserve (such as glycogen) 3. add complexity to protein molecules
disaccharides -2 common sugars -lactose (milk) and sucrose (food)
What are the major monosaccharides in the cell? glucose, glactose, and fructose
lipids are the only macromolecules that don't acquire connect through ___________ covalent bonds
several sugars bounded together are called what? polysaccharides
sugars are bounded by_________ and process -glycosidic bonds -water is released (dehydration)after the bond is formed
-composed of glucose subunits (α-1, 4 bonding); major form of energy reserve in many plants starch
major component of plant cell wall, composed of >2000 glucose subunits (B-1, 4 bonding) -key component of plant/ very sturdy/ protects the cell cellulose
-slimy layer -white blood cell is too slippery for them to grab onto them -thats why if found on pathogens it can infect, lungs, brain, etc. capsule
Because of its ability to form big polymers _________ are often found in the protective structures of bacterial cells-cell wall and capsule/slime layer carbohydrates
lipids define and function -fats, not soluble in water Ex of Functions in cells: 1.Triglycerides:storage lipids 2.phospholipids: forms cell membranes that are impermeable barriers 3.sterols such as cholesterol: increase fluids of membrane
lipids in water will cause what and why? -cause lipids to aggregate because of the hydrophobic portion it repels water
Each of the lipid molecules will have a very ______________ long chain, the longer it is the more hydrophobic it is (8 to 16/18)
Triglycerides function storage of lipids in the cell (Ex: fats and oils)
phospholipids (function) forms cell membranes that are impermeable barriers
What are phospholipids an example of? amphipathetic molecules -negatively charged (hydrophilic head) -2 hydrophobic tails -an ideal barrier material
sterols -such as cholesterol: increase fluidity of membrane
triglyceride define it 3 hydrophic chain tails causes alchol synthetic is glyceride
What serves as a major structural component of cell membranes? -phopholipids
How is a lipid molecule formed? -between an alcohol (OH) and a fatty acid (-COOH) via the ester bond R1-OH+R2-COOH>R1-O-CO-R2+H20 (alcohol)(fatty acid)
What are associated with cell membranes of eucaryotic cells and bind to the fatty acid of a lipid? cholesterol
What is the function of cholesterol? 1.if breaks up the close packing of the phospholipid tails and makes the membrane more fluid 2. increase membrane stability 3. found in eukaryotes bacteria don't have cholesterol
no phopholipid group cuases what to happen in a cell? -cell destroys
What is the most important macromolecule? -proteins
What is protein's function? -shapers of life, perform most of the activites in a cell -(enzyme, transport apparatus, structural support, etc.)
building units of proteins amino acids (20 types)
polymer of proteins -peptide, polypeptide, protein -each amino acid is linked to another amino acid by a peptide bond
protein structure -primary structure, secondary structure, tertinary structure to form unique shape, essential for its biological function -hydrogen bonds are involved in secondary and tertiary structure
proteins are most closely related to ___________ because of the long chains -carbohydrates
amino acids -all have an amino group (-NH2) and a carboxyl group (-COOH) -20 of these vary based on their side groups (R) present H NH2-C-COOH R
_______forms between the amino group on one amino acid and the carboxyl group on another amino acid -peptide bond
a peptide (protein) is an ________________ -ordered sequence of amino acids
a peptide is synthesized from the ________ to _____________ N-terminus to the C-terminus
different proteins have different _________ amino acid sequences
the amino acid sequence is called the _________ of the ________ -primary structure -protein
Secondary structure -in a peptide, amino acid residues can interact with each other and form helix or pleated sheet -hydrogen bonds are involved in this structure
peptide bond is a polymer of 1.________ are synthezied on 2.__________ 1. amino acids 2. ribosomes
tertiary structure -proteins can further fold into 3-dimensional structures and take on a variety of shapes -hydrogen bonds are also involved in this structure
shape of protein -the unique "shape" of the protein enables specific interactions with other molecules allowing it to function -therefore, hydrogen bonds are crucial in protein function
nucleic acids -2 types: deoxyribonucleic (DNA)- double helix structure of a DNA moleucle can form super coils and ribonucleic (RNA)-single stranded often contain secondary structure within
What is a nucleotide composed of? 1. nitrogen base 2. pentose 3. phophate
many virus don't have DNA
DNA and RNA are polymers of individual ____________ nucleotides > building blocks
nitrogen base purines: Adenine (A) and Guanine (G) pyrimidines: Thymine(T) and Cytosine(C)-DNA and Uracil(U)-RNA T-A C-G
pentose sugar DNA-deoxyribose RNA-ribose
Cell fundamental characteristics 1.reproductions 2.metabolism 3.motility (response to molecules) 4.protection and storage (cell wall or membrane) 5.nutrient transport 3.motility(response to molecules
Is a virus a cell? It may contain proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, etc. but it is not a cell
Virus characteristics -can reproduce but it needs to go to the host cell and do it for them -virus has no metabolic reaction -tumble/stumble random activity once recognizes host cell grabs on -no storage -protein protects genetic material
All of the 4 macromolecules (EXCEPT__________) are formed by polymerization, where subunits, called_____, are bound into chains called__________ 1. lipids 2. monomers 3. polymers
Similarity of DNA and RNA -each strand is formed by an ordered sequence of nucleotides -neighboring nucleotides are connected by the phosphodiester bonds (between the phosphate and the pentose)
describe hydrogen bonds in water -hydrogen bonds can form between water molecules -attraction between the more positive H atom and a more negative O atom
What is it called when molecules have both hydrophilic and hydrophopic properties amphipathic -such as detergent molecules and phospholipids molecules in cell membrane
List 5 characteristics of hydrogen bonds (1-3) 1.are weak bonds: longer distance between the two atoms than covalent and ionic bond2.are easily affected by heat, salt, and pH 3.can occur within one single large molecule (such as a protein) or between two molecules (such as water and solutes) 4 and 5
List 5 characteristic of hydrogen bonds (4-5) 4. numerous in biochemical molecules 5. important for biomolecule function
difference between DNA vs. RNA Find Card in mix (chp2)
What are the 4 major macromolecules? 1.Carbohydrates 2.Lipids 3.Proteins 4.Nucleic acids
In lipids the fatty acid portion (-R2) usually has a _________ and is responsible for __________ 1. long hydrocarbon chains 2. poor solubility of fat
_________serves as a template for the synthesis of new DNA, mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA DNA
most biological activities occur in _______ solutions aqueous (water based)
lipids are not_______ but can aggregate through the ________ to from________ 1. polymers 2. hydrophobic 3. macrostructures
What is it called when molecules repel water such as fat? hydrophobic
Created by: mjoyriegsecker