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The variable that the experimenter changes Independent Variable
The variable that is the only one that should be changed during a controlled experiment Independent Variable
The variable that is measured Dependent Variable
The variable that is sometimes called the responding variable - it responds to (or depends on) changes in the independent variable Dependent Variable
The variable that does not change - you try to keep it constant during an experiment Control variable
The independent and dependent variables that change during the experiment Experimental Variable
What are the 3 parts of an atom Protons, neutrons, and electrons
How is an atom different than a compound? A compound is made of more than 1 atom
What are the building blocks of carbohydrates? Monosaccharides (single sugars)
What are the building blocks of lipids? A glycerol and 2 fatty acids
What are the building blocks of proteins Amino acides
What are the building blocks of nucleic acids Nucleotides
What is the function of carbohydrates Provides and stores energy. Brain has to have glucose for energy. Structural support for plants (cellulose)
What is the function of lipids Stores lots of energy; part of cell membrane
What is the function of proteins Speed up chemical reactions; skin, tendons, ligaments,bones, hair, muscles, blood clots; protects against infection
What is the function of nucleic acids DNA - stores hereditary info; DNA - helps make proteins
Examples of carbohydrates Sugar, starch, vegetables, fruits, grains
Examples of lipids fats, wax
Examples of proteins enzymes, collagen, structural, antibodies
Examples of nucleic acids DNA, RNA
What is metabolism All the chemical reactions that take place in an organism
What is the difference between an exothermic reaction and endothermic reaction Exothermic - releases heat (heat exits); Endothermic - absorbs heat (heat enters)
What is the relationship between cell respiration and photosynthesis They are the reverse of one another; The reactants for photosynthesis are the products for cell respiration; The reactants for cell respiration are the products for photosynthesis
Give an example of a chemical reaction in an organism that is exothermic (catabolic) Cell respiration - produces energy, breaking larger molecules down
Give an example of a chemical reaction in an organism that is endothermic (anabolic) Photosynthesis - requires energy - putting smaller molecules together
What affect do enzymes have on an organism's metabolism It lowers the activation energy
List 2 environmental factors that can affect the activity of an enzyme pH, temperature, and amount of enzyme or substrate
What are the three parts of the cell theory? All living things are made up of cells; Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in an organism; All cells come from preexisting cells
Describe prokaryotes Single celled organisms that lack a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
Describe eukaryotes uni or multicellular organism that has a nucleus and other membrane bound organelles
Cell wall surrounds the cell membrane, supports, and protects the cell (only found in plant cells)
Cilia hair like structures used for movememnt
Cytoplasm Material where organelles are suspended; fills the empty space of the cell
Flagella long, whip-like structure used for movement (sperm - it's how they get to the egg)
Golgi body The packaging and distribution center of the cell; it packages and secretes proteins made by the cell at one location and used at another
mitochondria provides the cell’s energy; changes food energy into chemical energy, it’s bean shaped, “the mighty mitochondria”
nucleus control center of the cell, directs and controls cell activities, where the DNA is located
ribosomes sites where proteins are made
rough e.r e.r. that has ribosomes attached; site of protein synthesis
smooth e.r e.r. w/o ribosomes; synthesis of fats or carbs
nucleolus “nucleus within a nucleus”; produces ribosomes
vacuole fluid-filled sacs with plasma membranes; store food, waste, pigment – larger in plant cells because they store more water
vesicle used to transport substances throughout the cell
chloroplast sites of photosynthesis – only in plant cells
lysosome produced by golgi body; contain digestive materials that break down other materials
What is an example of a prokaryote? bacteria
What kind of cell have a cell wall, chloroplast, and larger vacuole; also are more rigid in shape (b/c of cell wall) Plant cell
What kind of cell has no cell wall, chloroplast, and smaller vacuole; more fluid in shape (b/c no cell wall) Animal cell
How are mitochondria and chloroplasts similar? They both contain their own DNA; both are sites where important chemical reactions occur
What are the differences between mitochondria and chloroplasts? mitochondria are where cellular respiration occurs, chloroplast is site of photosynthesis
Describe why the inner membrane of the mitochondria is highly folded. More surface area means that there is more places for cell respiration to occur which means more energy for a cell
Where does cell respiration occur in the cell? Photosynthesis? Cell respiration – mitochondria; photosynthesis – chloroplast
Where are proteins made in the cell, where are they packaged, and how do they exit the cell? Made in the ribosomes and rough ER, packaged at the golgi apparatus, exit by vesicles
What are the steps of the cell cycle in order? G1, S, G2, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase, Cytokinesis; G1, S, G2 = interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase = mitosis; So – you could also say the steps are interphase, mitosis, then cytokinesis
What happens in G1 the cellular contents (except for chromosomes) double; cell growth
What happens in S DNA is replicated (chromosomes double)
What happens in G2 proofreading stage – the cell checks for errors and the cell continues to grow
What happens in prophase nuclear membrane disappears and chromatin coil and the chromosomes are visible
What happens in metaphase chromosomes line up in the equator (middle) of the cell; spindle fibers attach chromatid to centriole
What happens in anaphase sister chromosomes separate at the centromere; they are being pulled apart because the spindle fibers are shortening
What happens in telophase nuclear membrane forms again, cell technically has two nuclei
Explain cytokinesis The cytoplasm divides between the two daughter cells by cleavage furrow in animals or cell plate in plants
14. Explain the importance of the check points in the cell cycle. What can occur if the cell cycle is not regulated? Checkpoints in the cell cycle help to make sure that no errors occur, especially during DNA replication. If the cell cycle is not regulated, cancer can occur.
What is the end result of mitosis? Two identical daughter cells
Which three macromolecules help to make up the cell membrane? Lipids, proteins, carbohydrates
Which part of the phospholipid is hydrophilic? Hydrophilic phosphate group
Which part of the phospholipid is hydrophobic hydrophobic fatty acid tails
Explain the process of diffusion. Molecules randomly move from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration
What is osmosis? The diffusion of water
What is the result of diffusion? When, if ever, does diffusion stop? The result is dynamic equilibrium (in a cell – an isotonic solution), diffusion stops when the concentration is the same throughout the solution (or inside and outside a cell) – but movement of water continues equally in both directions
What is active transport? requires energy and involves substances moving from areas of lower concentration to areas of higher concentration (against a concentration gradient)
What is passive transport? does not require energy and involves substances moving from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration (down a concentration gradient)
Explain the role of cholesterol in the cell membrane. Keeps the tails of the phospholipids separate
What does endocytosis do? moves substances into the cell
What does exocytosis do? moves unwanted substances out of the cell
Explain the role of a peripheral protein in the cell membrane identifies/recognizes the cell type
Explain the role of a transport protein in the cell membrane moves substances across the cell membrane
Explain the role of a receptor protein in the cell membrane binds to substances to move them in or out of the cell
What are the functions of the cell membrane The cell membrane surrounds, protects, and isolates the cell; it is selectively permeable – some substances are allowed to pass through and others aren’t
Describe the net movememnt of water in a hypertonic solution – the concentration of water is higher inside the cell (because the concentration of solute is lower inside the cell) – most of the water will move from higher concentration inside the cell to lower concentration outside the cell, cell shrivels
Describe the net movememnt of water in a hypotonic solution the concentration of water is lower inside the cell (because the concentration of solute is higher inside the cell) most of the water will move from higher concentration outside the cell to lower concentration inside the cell, cell swells
Describe the net movememnt of water in a isotonic solution the concentration of water is the same inside and outside the cell, so the same amt of water moves into and out of the cell, cell remains same size
What molecule do we use for energy in active transport? ATP
Describe a diploid cell A diploid cell has 2 copies of each chromosome (one from mom, one from dad)
Describe a haploid cell A haploid cell has 1 copy of each chromosome
What are the two types of cells? Gametes-sperm (males) and eggs (females); they are haploid Somatic cells-all cells EXCEPT sperm or eggs; they are diploid
What are the two types of chromosomes? Sex chromosomes-chromosome #23 (either and X or Y) that affect gender Autosomes-all other chromosomes (1-22) that do NOT affect gender
What is crossing over and when does it happen? Exchange of genetic information between homologous chromosomes that occurs during prophase I of meiosis and causes genetic variation
What is the purpose of meiosis? To create 4 genetically different daughter cells, called gametes
What is a karyotype? A photo of chromosomes from a person
What can you learn from analyzing a karyotype You can learn if a person has a chromosome abnormality or mutation from a karyotype.
What are two disorders you can see on a karyotype? Monosomy and Trisomy
How can you tell if a karyotype is of a male or female? Look at chromosome #23. If it is XX it is female. If it is XY it is male.
What is the purpose of a Punnett Square? To predict the probabilities of traits for the offspring of two parents whose genotypes you know.
Compare and contrast genotype and phenotype. Genotype: Allele combination (example: Bb) Phenotype: Physical appearance of trait (example: Brown hair)
Give an example of homozygous dominant AA
Give an example of homozygous recessive aa
Give an example of heterozygous Aa
Law of segregation During meiosis, the alleles separate from each other, one into one gamete, and one into another
Law of independent assortment allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes. This means that traits are transmitted to offspring independently of one another.
Created by: indycreed