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1st 9 wk Sci. ch. 2

Science 1st 9 wk ch. 2 (Haggard/7th gr)

Spontaneous Generation the mistaken idea that living things can arise from nonliving sources
Taxonomy the scientific study of how living things are classified
Heterotroph an organism that cannot make its own food, but obtains energy by feeding on others. Ex. animals eat mushrooms.
Autotroph an organism that makes its own food. Ex. Plants capture the sun's energy and use it to make their own food.
Prokaryote an organism whose cells lack a nucleus. Ex. bacteria, archaea
Eukaryote an organism that contains cells that have nuclei. Ex. protists, fungi, plants, and animals
Homeostasis mantaining stable internal conditions
Stimulus a change in an organism's surroundings that causes an organism to react
Response an action or change in behavior
Magnification the ability to make things look larger than they are
Resolution the sharpness of an image
Cell Membrane regulates what substances enter and leave the cell
Cell Wall stiff wall that surrounds the cell membrane, giving the cell a rigid box-like shape, and protects and supports the cell. Contained in plant cells only.
Mitochondria most of the cell's energy is produced within these rod-shaped organelles
Nucleus directs all of the cell's activities, including reproduction
Vacuole stores water, food, waste materials, and other materials
Golgi Bodies receive materials from the endoplasmic reticulum and send them to the other parts of the cell (also release materials outside the cell)
Ribosomes produce proteins (can attach to the endoplasmic reticulum, or ER or may float in the cytoplasm)
Lysosomes contain materilas that break down food particles and worn-out cell parts
Chloroplasts capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell
Endoplasmic Reticulum anetwork of passageways that carries materials from one part of the cell to another
Cytoplasm a gel-like fluid in which many different organelles are found
Chromatin thin strands in the nucleus that contain genetic material, which is the instructions for directing the cell's functions. p.62
Nucleolus where ribosimes are made (in the nucleus) p.62
What is the source of energy for most autotrophs? the sun
Which domains include only prokaryotes? Bacteria and Archaea
Which domain includes eukaryotes? Eukarya
What three characteristics are used to place organisms into domains and kingdoms? 1. cell type 2. ability to make food 3. number of cells in their bodies
Why do scientists classify living things? It makes it easier to study organisms.
What did the experiments of Redi and Pasteur demonstrate? Living things do not arise from nonliving material.
List six characteristics that all living things share. p.34 1.) cellular organization 2.)contain similar chemicals 3.) use energy 4.) resppond to their surroundings 5.) grow and develop 6.) reproduce
Why was the invention of the microscope important? It made it possible for people to discover and learn about cells.
What are two parts of a scientific name? Give an example showing each part. Genus + Species, like "Felis Domesticus" -- A species is group of similar organisms that mate and produce offspring tht can mate and reproduce.
What are cells like in many-celled organisms? p.67 In many-celled organisms, the cells are often quite different from each other and are specialized to perform specific functions.
How does a bacterial cell differ from a plant or animal cell? BACTERIAL CELL - no nucleus (prokaryote) and has a cell wall ANIMAL CELL - has nucleus (eukaryote) but no cell wall PLANT CELL - has a nucleus (eukaryote) and has a cell wall
List the three parts of the cell theory. p.54 1.) All living things are composed of cells 2.) Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things 3.) All cells are produced from other cells
The more classification levels that two organisms share, means they have MORE or LESS characteristics in common? (Be able to interpret a classification table like we looked at in class.) More
What is the difference between growth and development? Growth is the process of becoming larger, and development is the process of change that occurs during an organism's life to produce a more complex organism.
List some examples of organisms that belong to the fungi kingdom. Mushrooms, mold, and mildew
What are the three domains of life? Tell if each domain consists of prokaryotes or eukaryotes. 1.) Bacteria - prokaryotes 2.) Archaea - prokaryotes 3.) Eukarya - eukaryotes
How are plant cells different from animal cells? Plant cells have chloroplasts and a cell wall.
Who developed a naming system that grouped organisms on the basis of observable features? Carolus Linnaeus
What did Robert Hooke see when he observed the structure of a thin slice of cork? He saw empty spaces in the cork that looked like tiny rectangular rooms.
What did Robert Hooke call the "empty spaces" he saw in the thin slice of cork? "Cells." The word "cells" means "small rooms."
What is the name of the only kingdom of eukaryotes that contains both autotrophs and heterotrophs and both unicellular and multicellular organisms? Protists
List the eight levels of classification in order from the highest level to the lowest. Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species. Remember, "Did King Phillip Clean Our Floor, Garage, + Sink?"
Explain how you can tell the difference between a plant, animal, and bacterial cell. Bacterial Cell - prokaryote (no nucleus) and has a cell wall Plant cell - eukaryote (has nucleus) and has a cell wall Animal cell - eukaryote (has nucleus) and does NOT have a cell wall.
Created by: hudsonl