|(T/F) The term mechanical weathering refers to changes in a rock that are physical; there is little or no chemical change.
|(T/F) Chemical weathering will eventually change a quartz crystal into clay minerals.
|(T/F) The reduction of pressure on a body of rock can cause it to crack as it expands.
|(T/F) Plants, such as roots growing in cracks, and animals compacting the soil, have little influence on mechanical weathering.
|(T/F) Without chemical weathering, the elevated levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere would have long ago made the Earth too hot to sustain life.
|(T/F) Oxygen is abundant in the atmosphere but it does not combine with minerals of the Earth's crust.
|(T/F) An acid is a chemical compound that gives off hydrogen ions (H+) to a chemical reaction.
|(T/F) When feldspar is attacked by carbonic acid it forms clay minerals.
|(T/F) The single most important agent for the chemical weathering is temperature.
|(T/F) The B-horizon in soil is the zone of accumulation.
|(T/F) Sand-size grains of feldspar can be preserved in a soil profile over great time periods because of feldspar's resistance to chemical weathering.
|___ is the picking up and physical removal of rock particles by an agent such as wind, flowing liquid water, or glaciers.
|_______ refers to the group of destructive processes that change the physical and chemical character of rocks at the Earth's surface.
|Chemical weathering generally proceeds __.
||along contacts between mineral grains|
|_______ is a byproduct of rock weathering.
|Water that has trickled down into a joint in a rock can freeze, expand, and _____.
||widen the crack and hastening the rock's disintegration|
|Frost wedging is most effective __.
|| in areas with many days of freezing and thawing|
|The removal of a great weight of rock above a batholith by erosion allows the granite to expand forming ______.
|The ____ describes the process in which this dominant greenhouse gas circulates among Earth systems.
|The most important natural source for the formation of acid for rock weathering at the Earth's surface is dissolved _______.
|| carbon dioxide|
|_______ are commonly left after complete chemical weathering.
||Quartz and clay minerals|
|What, in terms of Earth systems, forms an essential interface between the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere?
|When feldspar is attacked by carbonic acid it forms _____.
||a clay mineral|
|_____ is the mineral least susceptible to chemical attack on the Earth's surface.
|Olivine weathers rapidly because its isolated silicon-oxygen tetrahedra are held together by _________ ionic bonds to iron and magnesium.
|The _______ horizon is the uppermost layer of a soil; it consists of organic material
|The _______ horizon is the dark-colored soil horizon that is rich in organic material and forms just below the surface vegetation
|The _____ horizon is the incompletely weathered parent material lying below the B-horizon
|As soils mature, distinct layers called ______ appear.
|Under wet and humid tropical conditions the least soluble material is the aluminum oxide called _____.
|A soil formed entirely through the weathering of basalt would not contain sand-sized grains of __.
|Plants and burrowing organisms contribute to soil development by __.
||All of the answers are correct.|