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2012 ILS Final Sem 1

2012 Final review for semester 1

What is a system of knowledge and the methods science
All matter is made up of what? Atoms
What is the order of the scientific method? Make observations about a problem. Create hypothesis. Test the hypothesis in an experiment. Record and analyze the data. Accept or reject hypthesis. Make a conclusion.
Observations Collecting facts using senses
A pattern found in nature Scientific law
Scientific theory collection of data that points to an answer, never proven
#1 Safety rule follow directions
Metric conversions 1cm=10mm 1m=100cm 1km=1000m 1L=1000ml 1kg=1000g
What is precision? getting a measurement consistently for multiple trials, finding the number with most significant figures
Plates made up of crust and lithosphere
All the world was once a giant supercontinent that broke up and drifted apart. theory of continental drift
Mid-ocean ridges Form at divergent boundaries underwater, new sea floor forms here.
Subduction zones Form at convergent boundaries, create ocean trenches, old crust recycled here.
Tranform boundaries move past one another, no vertical movment, San Andreas fault is found here.
Faults breaks in the rock
Atmosphere of the Earth Creates a blanket like effect on the Earth, traps reradiated heat from the surface
Global winds Westerlies, Easterlies, trade winds
Cold fronts and storms Cold air moves under warm air causing warm air to rise.
A pattern of weather over many years climate
Caused by C02 increase, and burning of fossil fuels. global warming
Sun centerned solar system theory heliocentric
Earth appears to be at the center due to movement of stellar objects around the Earth geocentric
How was the moon formed? after a large collision with another body, the Earth was encircled by pieces of its own mantle and pieces of the large object that collided with it.
How does gravity affect the Earth? ocean tides, causes weight
Four terrestrial planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
Four Jovian Planets Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, Uranus
Why is Pluto no longer a planet? Too small, not gravitationally dominant, other objects would be planets if it was.
Our Sun Formed from gas nebula, fusing hydrogen, stable due to equilibrium of outward and inward forces
What do light years measure? long distances between stars
Star classification color, size, and absolute brightness
What is apparent brightness of a star? how bright it seems from Earth
Adult stars Main-sequence
Low mass stars versus high mass stars low mass turn into white dwarfs, high mass turn into supernovae
Hurricane growth warm water makes the air above it rise and new air replaces it as it rises.
The further an object away is from Earth the faster its moving
Objects moving away appear to be red shifted
Big bang theory explains origin of the universe, evidenced by red shift and cosimic radiation
Motion of the orbit of a planet ellipse
Orbits are maintained by inertia and gravity
HR Digram cool-dim (bottom right) hot-dim (bottom left) hot-bright (top left) cool-bright (top right)
Study of the Earth's composition and structure geology
Three main layers of the Earth crust, mantle, core
Natural inorganic substance mineral
Three types of rock and how they form metamorphic-heat and pressure sedimentary-eroision and then cementation and compaction igneous-melting and cooling
Graduated cylinder measure volumes of liquids precisely
SI UNITS mass-grams volume-Liters length-meters force-Newtons
How does something maintain its orbit? gravity and inertia, with a velocity that allows it to move fast enough to work against the pull of the body its orbiting
Jupiter Largest planet,
Divergent boundaries Plates move apart, rift valleys, mid ocean ridges
Convergent boundaries Plates move together, ocean trenches and mountains
As objects become further apart the gravitational attraction decreases
Variable that is changed at the beginning of the experiment manipulated variable
Variable that responds to the manipulated variable responding variable
Accuracy close to a known value
Created by: evroman