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Science Final-mary

science final

mineral a naturally formed, inorganic solid that has a definite crystalline structure
element a substance that cannot be separated or broken into simpler substances by chemical means
compound a substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
crystal a solid whose atoms, ions or molecules are arranged in a definite pattern
silicate mineral a mineral that contains a combination of silicon, oxygen and one of more metals
non-silicate mineral a mineral that does not contain compounds of silicon or oxygen
Native elements are minerals that are only composed of one or more element. native elements are used in communications and electronics equipment
carbonates minerals that contain combinations of carbon and oxygen in their chemical structure. we use carbonate minerals in cement, building stones and fireworks.
Halites compounds that from when fluorine, chlorine, iodine, or bromine combine with sodium, potassium, or calcium.
oxides compounds that form when an element, such as aluminum or iron combines chemically with oxygen.
sulfates minerals that contain sulfur and oxygen
sulfides minerals that contain one or more elements such as lead, iron, or nickel combined sulfur
luster the way in which a mineral reflects light
streak the color of the powder of a mineral
cleavage the splitting of a mineral along smooth flat surfaces
fracture the manner in which a mineral breaks along either curved or irregular surfaces
hardness a measure of the ability of a mineral to resist scratching
density the ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of the substance
fluorescence calcite and fluorite glow under ultraviolet light
magnetism both magnetite and pyrrhotite are natural magnets
taste halite has a salty taste
chemical reaction calcite will become bubbly or 'fizz' when a drop of weak acid is placed on it
optical properties a thin clear piece of calcite places over an image will cause a double image
radioactivity minerals that contain radium of uranium can be detected by a Geiger counter
ore a natural material whose concentration of economically valuable minerals are high enough for the material to be mined profitably
reclamation the process of returning land back to its original condition after mining is completed
metallic minerals minerals that have a shiny surfaces and are good conductors of heat
nonmetallic minerals minerals that are not shiny and that are not good conductors of heat
gemstones nonmetallic minerals that are highly valued and used for beauty rather the usefulness
rock cycle the series of processes in which a rock forms, changes from one type to another, is destroyed, and forms again by geological processes
erosion the process by which wind, water, ice, or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another
deposition the process by which mineral is laid down
composition the chemical make-up of a rock; describes either the minerals or other materials in a rock
texture the quality of a rock that is based on the sizes, shapes, and positions of the rocks grains
igneous rock formed by the solidification of magma that can be either coarse of fine grained
intrusive igneous rock rock formed from the cooling and solidification of magma BENEATH the earths surface
extrusive igneous rock rock that forms as a result of volcanic activity at or near the earths surface
dikes sheetlike intrusions that cut across previous rock units
sills sheetlike intrusions that are oriented parallel rock units
batholiths the largest igneous rock intrusions
stocks intrusive bodies that are exposed over small areas
fissures lava that flows out of large cracks in the earth
lava plateaus plateaus when large amounts of lava cover an area of land
stratification the process of arranging rock
sedimentary rock rock formed from clay and sand grains cemented together
strata layers of rock
metamorphic rock rock changed by heat, pressure of a combination of both
foliated metamorphic rock the texture of metamorphic rock in which the mineral grains are arranged in planes or bands
non-foliated rock the texture of metamorphic rock in which the mineral grains are not arranged in planes of bands
deformation a change in shape of a rock caused by force on it
uniformitarianism a principle that states that geological processes that occurred in the past can be explained by current geological processes
catastrophism a principle that states that geologic change occurs suddenly
paleontology the scientific study of fossils
paleobotany the study of plant fossils
relative dating any method of determining whether on object is older or younger than other events or objects
superposition a principle that states younger rocks lie above older rocks if they have not been disturbed
geologic column an arrangement of rock layers in which older rocks are at the bottom
unconformity a break in geologic record created when rock layers are eroded of when sediment is not deposited for a long period of time
disconformity the most type where a parallel rock layer is missing
nonconformity when sedimentary rock lays on top of an eroded surface
angular unconformity when horizontal layers are tilted of folded
absolute dating any method of measuring the age of an event of object in years
isotope an atom that has the same number as protons but a different number of neutrons
radioactive decay the process in which a radioactive isotope tends to break down into a stable isotope of the same or different element
radiometric dating a method of determining the age of an object by estimating the relative percentages of a radioactive isotope and a stable isotope
half-life the time needed for half of a sample of a radioactive substance to undergo radioactive decay
fossil the remains or physical evidence of an organism preserved by geological processes
trace fossil a fossilized mark that is formed in soft sediment by the movement of an animal
mold a mark or cavity made in a sedimentary surface by a shell of other body
cast a type of fossil remains that forms when sediments fill in the cavity left by an organism
index fossil a fossil that is found in the rock layers of only one geologic age
geologic time scale the standard method used to divide the earths long natural history into manageable parts
eon the largest division in geologic time
era a unit of geologic time that includes 2 or more periods
period a unit which eras are divided
epoch a subdivision of a period
extinction death of every member in a species
index mineral rock a certain rock used to date a period
Created by: marymoo