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cell the smallest unit that can perform all life processes; cells are covered by a membrane and have DNA and cytoplasm
stimulus anything that causes a reaction or change in an organism or any part of an organism
homeostasis the maintenance of a constant internal state in a changing environment
sexual reproduction reproduction in which the sex cells from two parents unite, producing offspring that share traits from both parents
asexual reproduction reproduction that does not involve the union of sex cells and in which one parent produces offspring identical to itself
heredity the passing of genetic traits from parent to offspring
metabolism the sum of all chemical processes that occur in an organism
producer an organism that can make its own food by using energy from its surroundings
consumer an organism that eats other organisms or organic matter
decomposer an organism that gets energy by breaking down the remains of dead organisms or animal wastes and consuming or absorbing the nutrients
protein a molecule that is made up of amino acids and that is needed to bulid and repair body structures and to regulate processese in the body
carbohydrate a class of energy-giving nutrients that includes sugars, starches and fiber; contains carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen
lipid a type of biochemical that does not dissolve in water; fats and steroids are lipids
phospholippid a lipid that comtains phosphorous and that is a structural compenent in cell memebranes
ATP adenosine triphosphate, a molecule that acts as the main energy source for cell processes
nucleic acid a molecule made up of subunits called nucleotides
nucleotides molecules that make up nucleic acids
cell membrane a phospholipid layer that covers a cell's surface; acts as a barrier between the inside of a cell and the cell's environment
organelle one of the smal bodies in a cell's cytoplasm that are specialized to perform a specific function
nucleus in a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-bound roganelle that contains the cell's DNA and that has a role in processes such as growht, metabolism, and reproduction
prokaryotes an organism that consists of a single cell that does not have a nucleus
eukaryotes an organism made up of cells that have a nucleus enclosed by a memberane; eukaryotes include animals, plants, and fungi, but not archaebacteria or eubacteria
cell wall a rigid structure that surrounds the cell membrane and provides support to the cell
ribosome cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; the site of protein synthesis
endoplasmic reticulum a system of membranes that is found in a cell's cytoplasm and that assists in the prodcution, processing, and transport of proteins and in the production of lipids
mitochondrion in eukaryotic cells, the cell organelle that is surrounded by two embranes and that is the site of cellular respiration
golgi complex cell organelle that helps make and package materials to be transported out of the cell
vesicle a small cavity or sac that contains materials in a eukaryotic cell
lysosomes a cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes
nucleus the organelle that contains the cell's DNA and is the control center of the cell
vacuole the organelle that stores water and other materials
chloroplast the organelle that uses the energy of sunlight to make food
tissue a group of similar cells that perform a common function
organ a collection of tissues that carry out a specialized function of the body
organ system a group of organs that work together to perform body functions
organism a living thing; anything that can carry out life processes independently
structure the arrangment of parts in an organism
function the special, normal, or proper activity of an organ or part
diffusion the movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density
osmosis the diffusion of water through a semi-permiable membrane
passive transport the movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell
active transport the movement of substances across the cell membrane that requires the cell to use energy
endocytosis the processby which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell
exocytosis the process in which a cell releases a particle by enclosing hte particle in a vesicle that then moves to the cell surface and fuses with the cell membrane
photosynthesis the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to make food
cellular respiration the process by which cells use oxygen to producce energy from food
fermentation the breakdown of food without the use of oxygen
cell cycle the life cycle of a cell
chromosome in a eukaryotic cell, one of the structures in the nucleus that are made up of DNA and protein; in a prokaryotic cell, the main ring of DNA
homologous chromosomes chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes and the same structure
miosis in eukaryotic cells, a process of cell division that forms two new nuclei, each of which has the same number of chromosomes
cytokinesis the division of the cytoplasm of a cell
heredity the passing of genetic traits from parent to offspring
dominant trait the trait observed in the first generation when parents that have different traits are bred
recessive trait a trait that reappears in the second generation after disappearing in the first generation when parents with different traits are bred
gene one set of instructions for an inherited trait
allele one of the alternate forms of a gene that governs a characteristic such as hair color
phenotype an organism's appearance or other detectable characteristic
genotype the entire genetic makeup of an organism; also the combination of genes for one or more specific traits
probability the likelihood that a possible future event will occur in any given instance of the event
meiosis a process in cell division during which the number of chromosomes decreases to half the original number by two divisions of the nucleus, which results in the production of sex cells
sex chromosome one of the pair of chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual
pedigree a diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family
Created by: miko380