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About Volcanoes

6th Grade Chapter 3

Magma Chamber The pocket beneath a volcano where magma collects.
Pipe A long tube through which magma moves from the magma chamber to Earth's surface. (Narrow almost vertical crack in crust)
Vent The opening through which molten rock and gas leave a volcano--leaves the pipe.
Lava Flow The area covered by lava as it pours out of a volcano's vent--river of lava.
Volcano A weak spot in the crust where magma/molten material has come to the surface.
Magma The molten mixture of rock-forming substances, gases, and water from the mantle.
Lava Liquid Magma that reaches the surface; also the rock formed when liquid lava hardens (as it cools).
Ring of Fire A major belt of volcanoes that rims the Pacific Ocean.
Island Arc A string of islands formed by the volcanoes along a deep ocean trench. Japan, New Zealand, Indonesia, Caribbean Islands, Philippines and the Aleutians
Hot Spot An area where magma from deep within the mantle melts through the crust above it, like a blow torch. (Hawaiian Islands formation, Yellowstone National Park)
Crater A bowl-shaped area that forms around a volcano's central opening (vent).
Silica A material that is formed from the elements oxygen and silicon; found in magma. Amount in magma determines how easily the magma flows. One of the most abundant materials in Earth's crust and mantle
Pahoehoe A hot, fast-moving type of lava that hardens to form smooth, ropelike coils, wrinkles. Produced from Quiet eruption
aa A slow-moving type of lava that hardens to form rough, jagged chunks; cooler that pahoehoe. Produced from Quiet eruption
Pyroclastic Flow The expulsion of ash, cinders, bombs, and gases during an explosive volcanic eruption. (Explosive eruption)
Active Said of a volcano that is erupting or has shown signs of erupting in the near future. "LIVE"
Dormant Said of a volcano that does not show signs of erupting in the near future. "SLEEPING"
Extinct Said of a volcano that is unlikely to erupt again. "DEAD"
Hot Spring A pool formed by groundwater that had risen to the surface after being heated by a nearby body of magma.
Geyser A fountain of water and steam that builds up pressure underground and erupts at regular intervals. (Old Faithful)
Geothermal Energy Energy from water or steam that has been heated by magma. Can provide a clean, reliable energy source. Iceland - uses for warmth in homes and electricity--as well as N'ern California and New Zealand.
Where do most volcanoes occur? Near boundaries of Earth's plates and along the edges of continents, in island arcs or along mid-ocean ridges.
What are some volcano hazards Pyroclastic flows, avalanches of mud, damage from ash, lava flows,and deadly gases
Shield Volcano A wide, gently sloping mountain made of layers of lava and formed by quiet eruptions. This is how Hawaiian Islands were created
Cinder Cone A steep, cone-shaped hill or mountain made of volcanic ash, cinders, and bombs piled up around a volcano's opening. Sunset Crater
Composite Volcano A tall, cone-shaped mountain in which layers of lava alternate with layers of ash and other volcanic materials. (Mt Fuji, Mt St Helens, Mt Hood)
Caldera The large hole at the top of a volcano formed when the roof of a volcano's magma chamber collapses.
Volcanic Neck A deposit of hardened magma in a volcano's pipe--looks like a giant tooth stuck in the ground
Dike A slab of volcanic rock formed when magma forces itself across rock layers
Sill A slab of volcanic rock formed when magma squeezes between layers of rock.
Batholith A mass rock formed when a large body of magma cooled inside the crust.
5 landforms formed from lava and ash? (beneath the surface) Volcanic Necks, Dikes, Sills, Batholiths, Dome Mountains
Lava on surface creates these landforms Shield Volcanoes, Cinder Cones, Composite Volcanoes and Plateaus
Benefit of Volcanoes Fertile Soil
What planets have extinct volcanoes similar to earth?? Venus and Mars
Where have spacecrafts photos volcanic activity On moons of Jupiter and Neptune
two oceanic plates collide what may be result? Volcanoes in an inland arc.
force that causes magma to erupt at surface dissolved gases under pressure
Eruption of thin, fluid lava a quiet eruption
Alternating layers of lava and volcanic ash are found in Composite Volcanoes
Created by: Trinklea595