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Final's stack. Everything and anything we have learned.

What is Nutrition? The process by which the body uses food. It includes taking in and utilizing food sources for proper growth, functioning, and maintenance.
Malnutrition Poor nutrition due to improper diet or problems that prevent the body from using food properly.
Metabolism The physical and chemical properties by which an organism is maintained. Includes Cellular activities of the body.
Catabolism the breakdown of anything into smaller substances.
Digestion the process of converting food into chemical substances that can be absorbed into the blood and used by the body tissues.
Anabolism the building up of small into more complex substances.
Kilocalorie Used as energy equivalent to food. (1000 calories)
how many kcals does an adult need a day? 2000 - 3000
Calorie The amount of heat needed to raise the temp of 1 g. of water to 1 degree C.
First intention Minimal tissue damage. Edges are closely approximated, they seal rapidly and are minimal scaring and infection. (surgical incisions and stitches)
Second intention More tissue lost. Edges are not approximated, granulation tissue forms on edges and bottom. Greater chance of infection, mor scaring, heals slower. (jagged lacerations)
Third intention Intentionally leave the wound open to drain because infection is present. (abscess)
what heals by second intention? Abscess.
Dressings protective covering over a wound.
Choice of dressing is based on which four things? The location, size, and type of the wound and the condition of the skin around the wound. Amount of exudate. The need for debridement. The frequency of change, the ease, and the cost.
Dry gauze's are good for? Debriding and soaking up some drainage.
Purpose of wound drainage systems? Reduce the accumulation of drainage in an area that could interfere with healing. (pressure ulcers and surgical wounds)
Wound V.A.C Negative Pressure Wound Therapy. A machine used for chronic wounds, provides gentle suction to remove secretions from the wound bed. Drainage collected in a canister.
Wound V.A.C dressings changed... Every 3*5 days.
Penrose Hollow tube with open ends. Drains on to dressing. (temporary, used for abscess)
Hemovac Drum like closed system. Provides moderate suction
Jackson-Pratt Looks like Bulb. Is a closed system. Has a port for emptying and provides gentle suction.
Wound irrigation A method used for cleaning debride from wounds. (open, deep wounds)
What technique do you use for irrigation of wounds? STERILE -- ALWAYS.
What factor is a huge part of healing? Nutrition! (Protein, Vit A&C, Iron, Zinc, and Copper are needed to heal.)
Internal hemorrhage When you see no visible blood. Patient may complain of excessive incision pain.
Internal hemorrhage Signs and Symptoms? S&S of internal hemorrhage: BP drops, Pulse and RR increase, Skin becomes pale, cool, and clammy.
External hemorrhage Can see bleeding; on dressing or pooled under the patient. (can also go into shock!)
Evisceration Complication Organs protruded through the wound.
What do you do if a patients organs are protruded? You cover the wound with sterile towel soaked in sterile saline, then call the surgeon.
Infection Complication MO's were introduced to the wound. Take 2-11 days to develop symptoms, but happens 48 hrs after Post Op situation.
Infection complication Signs and Symptoms? S&s Are: Redness, Warmth to touch, Pain at site, possible Fever.
Hygiene The establishment of well-being through personal care.
What does hygiene promote? Promotes Independence and Dignity.
Integumentary system includes: The skin and all its parts - Hair, nails, and mucus membranes.
Mucus Membrane A special tissue that shields from the open environment.
Epidermis Outer most layer of skin. Can see and clean. This layer is shed; mostly dead cells.
Dermis "the true skin" Contains the glands and roots for hair and nails, nerve endings & receptors.
Subcutaneous Layer Separates skin from muscle and underlying tissues. (mostly fat and blood vessels)
Sabaceous Glands Glands located in the Dermis.
Sebum Oil released lube the skin and hair.
What are nutrients? Food sources like proteins, carbs, & fat that provide calories and/or chemicals necessary for energy, growth, and repair of body tissue.
What are the 6 major nutrients? Proteins, Minerals, Vitamins, Water, Carbs, & Fat.
Protein A component of foods that contain Amino Acids.
Amino Acids There are building blocks for all the structures of the body.
How many types of Amino acids are there? 22
Essential Amino Acids These must be taken from food sources
Non-Essential Amino Acids These can be manufactured from other Amino Acids. (the body rearranges other AA's to make new)
How many calories are in Proteins? Provides 4kcals per gram.
Function of proteins? To build, maintain, and repair body tissue.
Mono-saccharides The simplest form. Have 1 sugar unit. (glucose)
Di-saccharides This has 2 sugar units. (sucrose)
Poly-saccharides Has more than 3 sugar units. (starch and complete carbs)
# of calories provided from Carbs? 4kcals.
Function of Carbs To provide quick energy. The main components of most diets. When our body breaks it down, it turns to glucose.
Fats/Lipids Are made of molecules known as glycerides
Saturated fat These are usually solid and from animal sources. Typically found with cholesterol. Contain all the hydrogen Ions possible. (butter, eggs, fats around meat)
Unsaturated Fats These are usually liquid and from plant sources. Not typically found with cholesterol. Missing Hydrogen Ions. (Olive oil, corn oil. canola oil, peanut oil)
# of calories provided from fat? 9kcals per gram.
Ceruminous glands Located in the ear, secrete Cerumen which lubes the tympanic membrane
Mucus Secreted by mucus membranes. Keeps the membrane soft and moist.
Healthy hair is... Clean, Shiny/luster, and grows on every part of the body.
We note this with healthy hair.... Color. Distribution. Texture.
Care of hair.. Should be brushed/ combed daily (slowly and carefully). Shampooed weekly.
Care of nails... Usually done with Bath, if not soak to soften them.
Fingernails. Cut these straight across, clean underneath with and orange stick. Report any abnormalities. Apply lotion!
Toenails.. Cut these on bath day or soak feet if needed. Cut straight across.
Diabetic Patient Nail care DO NOT CUT NAILS -- unless with an MD order. Feet should be washed/ soaked daily, dried thou-rally, and inspected for abnormalities. Well fitting shoes with socks must be worn anytime patient is out of bed.
DO NOT CUTE NAILS IF... Client has Perpipheral Vascular Disease, on anticoagulants or if nails are extremely thick/discolored.
Beginning Procedures.. Gather equipment/be organized. Knock on door and announce yourself. Identify yourself and explain procedure to patient. Provide privacy. Identify patient. Place bed at a working level.
Handwashing Rationale **The number 1 way to prevent the spread of disease and MO's**
When do you wash your hands? ALL THE TIME!
Proper hand washing time is? 15-30 secs.
Proper water temp for a bath is? 105-115 degrees.
What is the body parts order for a bath? Face, Arms, Hands, Underarms, Chest, Abdomen, Legs, Back, Genitals, then Anal.
How many times do you change the bath water? 2x. After cleaning the chest of the patient and the legs.
Carthus Corner of the eye.
Bed bath Washing for a patient too weak or ill. This is also a good time for assessment and teaching.
Partial Bath When you assist and bathe what they can not. Also referred to as "abbreviated bath".
Tub Bath Done weekly in long term care; can be a shower.
Most important rule when giving a client a tub bath is? NEVER LEAVE THE CLIENT ALONE!
Perineal Care Washing of genitals; done for incontinent patients.
Peri care for females is? Clean from front to back.
Peri care for males is? Clean foreskin and remember to pull it back forward if uncircumcised. (be gentle)
When shaving patients... Use an electric razor if possible. If you MUST use a razor, use a safety razor.
In what direction to shave the hair of a client? Downwards.
When to not shave patients? When the client is taking anti-coagulates, are on bleeding precautions, or suicide prevention.
Back rubs should be done.. 2x day to bed ridden patients with their AM and PM care.
Back rubs promote... Relaxation and comfort.
Care of an artificial eye. Clean artificial eye with soap and water and patients eye socket with Saline water.
How to remove an artificial eye... Depress lower part of eye; eye will fall out.
Three purposes of Oral care are? Comfort and well being. Reduces growth of bacteria in the mouth. Maintain proper salivary growth.
How often should Oral Care be done? 2x day or more often as needed.
Functions of saliva... Reduces bacteria. Antimicrobial properties. Keeps mucus membrane moist and comfortable. Prevents food adhering to teeth. Necessary for taste. Makes swallowing easier.
Causes of reduced salivary flow.. Mouth breathing, O2 administration (facemask), fluid restriction, Fever, Side effect of meds.
How do you brush teeth? Brush inside and outside at an angle, back and forthe, up and down.
Equipment for Oral Care... Basin, Brush, Paste, Towel, Mouthwash, Glass of water, Gloves.
Mucus membranes should be.. Pink and moist.
When assessing the mucus membranes check the... Halatocious, Caries, for infection, or gingivitis.
Unoccupied bed Do whenever theasable, change when patient is out of bed.
Open bed. Fan fold the sheets when finished making.
Closed bed. leave sheets and blankets towards the top of the bed.
Surgical bed. Bottom sheet, no pillow, leave bed in high position.
Occupied bed. Usually done with the sickest patients. Change the linens when the patient is in bed.
Toepleat. Pulling up the bottom of the sheets to allow wiggle room for the toes.
Care of Soiled linen.. Need barrier if placed on floor, bring cart to you to dispose of material so you are not walking through the hall.
Soiled Linens should never... TOUCH YOUR UNIFORM.
Eggcrate/ Foam mattress. Need 4-6 inches of foam for these. Rarely used anymore; "came and went"
Air mattress Used in the hospital. Good for patients at risk for pressure ulcers.
Therapeutic-Alternating Pressure Beds Bed used for skin issues. It changes in pressure to help with pressure sores.
Bed Cradle Goes over bottom of the bed to keep pressure of linen off the legs.
Footboard. Placed at bottom of bed, prevents foot drop.
Trapeze Triangle that hangs above the bed that the patient can use to reposition themselves.
Heat exhaustion Signs and Symptoms. STILL SWEATING, complain of thirst, fatigue, muscle cramps, develop headache, may be dizzy or vomit.
"REEDA" Assessment Redness, Edema, Ecchymosis, Drainage, Approximation.
Hemorrhage Complication Excessive Sanguineous drainage. Occurs most in the first 48 hrs, but if persists or is large amounts it's abnormal.
Noctural Enuresis Bedwetting.
Bruxism Teeth grinding. (seen when under stress)
Noctural Myoclonus Can be an electrolyte imbalance or side effect of medication that causes Restless leg syndrome.
Sundown Syndrome Alert and oriented in the day, unoriented at night becoming restless and wander.
Alternations in Rest and Sleep can have serious consequences on..? A persons physical and emotion well being.
Comfort to give strength, hope, and cheer/ ease the grief or trouble of another.
Temperature of comfort should be...? 68-74 degrees
Rest A waking state, where there's a conscious effort to decrease activity and mental stimulation.
Sleep. A stage of un-rousable unconsciousness.
NREM sleep Non Rapid Eye Movement. Quiet sleep with NO DREAMS.
NREM stage 1 Lasts 1-2 minutes. Light sleep easily aroused, Vital Signs decrease gradually.
NREM stage 2 Lasts 10-20 mins. Slightly deeper sleep, wake with effort.
NREM stage 3 Lasts 15-30 mins. Early deep sleep, you may SNORE, decreased muscle tone, little or no movement, difficult to arouse.
NREM stage 4 Deepest Sleep. Lasts 15-30 mins. Noctural Enuresis, Bruxism, and Somnambulism occur.
Narcolepsy Neurological disorder. An uncontrollable onset of sleep, can just fall asleep whenever.
Insomnia Difficulty falling asleep, awaken during normal sleep hrs, or early awakening.
Rule of thumb for Sleep Problems. Sedatives and Hypnotics are a last resort!
Somnambulism Sleepwalking.
REM Where dreaming occurs.
Circadian rhythm A 24hr cycle or rhythm that our body goes through. Affected by day and light, night and dark.
Sleep Apnea The breathing stops for 10 secs
Cardinal Rule Remain Calm.
Four goals when helping a victim(s) Keep the victim alive. Prevent the victim from becoming worse. Help promote recovery from injury or illness. Make sure they get necessary medical care (call 911).
Information to give (911) EMS.. You name and number you can be reached at. Location and # of victims. What happened to the victim. What's being done for the victim. (the vic's condition, age, and sex also)
Acting You only act as you are trained to act.
Consent Any responsive adult must give this before you can help them.
Moving victims. NEVER MOVE, unless they are in immediate danger.
Hazards not allowing you to enter a scene.. Electrical wires, Fire, Chemical spills, Falling objects, High speed traffic, and personal violence.
Responsiveness. Are they alert, oriented, know name or the day.
"A, B, C, H" Used for assessing the victim. Check Airway, Breathing, Circulation/Pulse, and hemorrhaging.
S-A-M-P-L-E History of the patient. Signs and Symptoms, Allergies, Medications, Previous problems, Last food or drink, Events.
Head to toe exam. looking at the entire body. Check for: Pain, # of wounds, bleeding, deformed or swollen areas, skin color, temp, moisture.
Recovery position Used for unresponsive victims who ARE breathing. Keeps airway open, prevents aspiration, allows fluid to drain from the mouth.
Myocardial Infraction The heart is unable to receive enough circulating blood to give it enough O2.
What causes a Heart Attack? Blocked blood vessels or vessels in spasm, an irregular heart rhythm.
Angia Chest pain that occurs sometimes after exertion or recovering chest pain that occurs when the heart is over worked.
Cardiopulmonary arrest Happens when the heart STOPS! Needs to do CPR or use defibrillator.
Hemorrhage. Excessive bleeding that is difficult to control. Can be Internal or External.
Signs and Symptoms of Wound Infection. Usually Red, Swollen, Increased Pain, Purulent drainage from the wound, usually warm to the touch, "red streaks", Fever.
Epistaxis Treatment. Lean forward and pinch nose, applying pressure for 5-10 mins.*breathe through mouth and don't talk*
Epistaxis Nose Bleed.
Avulsed tooth treatment. Postion victim with head tilting down and blood draining out.
What do you do with an avulsed tooth? Picking up a tooth by its crown and placing it into a glass of milk to be taken to a Dentist.
Hemorrhaging First Aid Whenever possible, lay patient on back, feet elevated 12 inches. Call 911 immediately, monitor them closely, try covering them if chilly.
Shock A life threatening emergency.
Cause of shock.. Acute circulatory failure caused by inadequate blood volume, heart failure, overwhelming infection, severe allergic reactions, or extreme pain/freight.
S&S of Shock. Cool, Clammy skin. May be pale or bluish in color; ashen if dark skin tone. May complain of SOB. Pulse and RR Rapid. BP drops. Affixed stare.
First aid for shock. Lie down, raise legs 8-12 inches, call 911, turn head to the side if nauseous, cover them, if SOB raise head slightly.
Do not give a shock patient.... Food or Drink.
Burn Thermal injury to the skin
Immediate treatment of Burns. Stop the source. (stop, drop, and roll) wrap in blanket, put water on them.
Epi-pens. "Epinephrine" Used to treat sever allergic reactions. Only lasts 15-20 mins, then MUST go to the hospital.
First degree/minor/superficial burns are... Very painful, skin is red and like a sunburn.
Second degree burns are... Very, VERY painful and usually blister. Skin is red and swollen.
Third degree burns are.. Not painful, skin looks charred or white and leathery. All the nerves are destroyed. (may go into shock)
Spinal Injuries. The higher on the spine the more serious..
Quadriplegia Paralyzing of 4 extremities.
Paraplegic. Paralyzing of 2 extremities.
How do you control bleeding of a head injury? Apply pressure around the wound, but no direct pressure to the wound.
Pneumothorax Air is leaking into chest cavity around the lungs.
Hemothorax Collapsed lung due to blood accumulating around the lungs.
Evisceration When organs protrude through a wound.
Fracture A broken bone.
Dislocation When the bones are pulled out of heir normal position in a joint.
Atrophy A reduction in muscle size. (weakness)
Atony A reduction in muscle tone. (muscles weak)
Foot Drop A type of contracture.Prolonged planter flexion of the foot; toes are pointed.
Osteoporosis When bones become weak and poris because calcium is removed from the bones. Our body does this because our bones aren't stressed.
Urinary stone formation More calcium is pulled from the bones and excreted through urine; Kidney Stones. (Calculi)
Shearing Force Happens in High Fowler's. Sliding of adjacent tissues or tissue layers that causes damage to the tissues.
Friction Created when skin is dragged across surfaces causing abrasions.
Incontinence Leads the skin to be overly moist, maceration occurs.
RICE Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation.
Treatment for open fractures. Apply pressure on artery above the break, cover the wound with dressing, put ice/cold pack to area, splint above and below if need be.
Sprains An injury to a ligament. Painful, use RICE for care.
Muscle strains and Cramps Injury to muscle and tendons.
(CVA) Cerebrovascular Accident S&S (Stroke)Sudden headache, numbness in face and arm on one side, weakness or loss of movement on same side, difficulty breathing/swallowing, dizziness & confusion, visual changes.
Hyperventilation Rapid deep breathing, can cause numbness or tingling around the mouth and hands.
Asthma An allergic reaction, but can be exercised or stress induced that causes difficulty breathing, speaking, a dry cough.
Nebulizer Arisol form of med; treatment.
Epilepsy Seizure disrder (neurons go haywire)
IDDM Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
NIDDM Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
Hypoglycemia Low blood sugar; become dizzy, irritable, headache, confusion, difficulty paying attention, pale-sweaty skin, slow jerky movements.
Hyperglycemia High blood sugar
Abdominal Pain A sudden onset that is severe, ask symptoms to figure out where pain is coming from. (cannot diagnose)
Hypothermia Cool skin, apathetic, change in breathing, shaking, shivering until it becomes severe then shivering stops, confused, irrational, lethargic, drowsy.
Heatstroke TOO HOT; flushed, dry skin, hot to touch, STOPPED SWEATING, headache, dizziness, confused, irrational behavior, Rapid RR.
Frostbite. Localized to an area, freezing of the skin and deeper tissue. Skin looks waxy, area will become hard with no pain.
Intravascular Inside the blood vessels, in the plasma of the blood.
Intracellular Inside cells, Largest amount in the body.
Interstitial In the tissue between the cells
Extracellular Fluid outside the body cells.
Cause of decubitus Prolonged unrelieved pressure. The length of time it is suppressed is more significant than the weight.
Decreased peristalsis Cause of Anorexia. Wave like contractions that move through the GI track.
Urinary Incontinence The inability to control your urination.
Venous Statis Venous blood pools in the blood vessels of he lower extremities; causing clotting to happen.
Fecal Incontinence. Inability to control the bowel.
Supine position Laying flat on your back
Constipation Stools become hard and difficult to pass.
Hypotension / Orthostatic hypotension When the BP drops if the person sits or stands. > 10/5 change.
Embolus A piece of the thrombus breaks off and travels through the blood stream; traveling blood clot.
Thrombophlebitis Inflammation of a blood vessel wall due to Thrombus.
Thrombus A stationary blood clot.
Kinesiology The study of how the body moves.
ABC's of Body Mechanics Alignment, Balance, Coordinated Body Movements.
Body Mechanics The efficient use of the body as a machine or the efficient use of the muscloskeleto system to do work.
Ergonomics Promote comfort, performance, and health in the work place.
Posture Body alignment; the body functions best in this position.
Hypostatic Pneumonia Inflammation of the lungs caused by pooled secretions. (shallow respiration's and decreased activity.
Decreased Lung Expansion. Breathing shallow.
Atelectasis Collapsed Aveoli in the lungs. Air cannot move in and out. Exchange of gases decreases.
Contractures Permanently shortened muscles and these prevent normal joint movement.
Stasis of secretions. Not moving and secretions pool.
Dependent Enema. A build of of fluid in interstial tissues below the level of the heart.
Urine stasis Urine doesn't empty from the bladder well.
Fecal Impaction A collection of hardened feces in rectum or colon, unable to pass w/o intervention.
Anorexia Loss of appetite.
Bony prominences = pressure points A raised area on a bone -- Different body positions create different pressure points.
Back Aches A muscular ache due to lack of position changes.
Functions of fats A stored form of energy. Necessary for chemical reactions in the body.
Minerals Inorganics, when dissolved in water they for electrolytes.
# of calories provided by minerals? NONE!
Functions of minerals... essential for chemical reaction in the body, they regulate body processes like blood clotting, nerve impulses and muscle function.
Vitamins. Organic compounds needed for normal body functioning and metabolism.
Water soluble Vitamins are... All the B and C vitamins
Fat - soluble Vitamins are... A, D, E, and K Vitamins.
Functions of vitamins. Chemical reactions, growth and maintenance of healthy functioning of the body, blood clotting, never functioning, wound healing.
Water The most vital nutrient for life, need 2-3 liters a day.
# of Calories in water... NONE!
Functions of water.. A background for all chemical reactions in the body. Major component in the body. Allowed transport of chemicals, lubricates and protects body structure.
Daily Values A % of intake based on the standards set for fat, cholesterol, saturated fat, carbs, and fiber in a 2000 calorie diet.
Food labeling Identifies the amount of each serving per container, tell how many calories are in a serving, tells the amount of fats (sat & tran) cholesterol, sodium, carbs, dietary, fiver, sugar, and proteins.
2-3 servings of what per day? Dairy and Protein.
2-4 servings of what per day? Fruits.
3-5 servings of what per day? Vegetables.
6-11 servings of what per day? Grains
When we move the extremity for them it is called.. Passive Range of Motion
The patient performs this with out assistance.. Active Range of Motion
The straightening of a joint is called Extension
When you do a circle all the way around.. Circumduction Rotation.
When you rotate towards the mid-line Internal rotation.
Location of the kidneys? On either side of the backbone, in the posterior portion of the abdominal wall
Flushing out the catheter, tube, and/or bladder. Catheter Irrigation
Created by: shogan2488