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WGU-ISC4

QuestionAnswer
Tertiary Consumer In food chain, feeds on secondary consumers.
Acceleration Any change in the speed of an object. Acceleration is a vector quantity. The change in an objects velocity is a more precise way to talk about acceleration, because the direction of the change must also be included in the description.
Vector quantities Have both a measured aspect and direction to them.
Urogenital system Filters, stores, and removes wastes.
3 major parts of the human brain Cerebrum, brain stem, cerebellum.
Wedge a variation on a ramp. The difference being that a wedge is used to separate objects.
Capillaries Microscopic blood vessels that allow for the exchange between blood and the interstitial fluid in tissues.
Name the four types of tissue in animals. Epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous tissue.
Gases Atoms that comprise matter in the state of a gas are not packed together at all, but move around freely. Atoms have high kinetic energy. Decreased or increased temperature can cause it to change to liquid or plasma.
Relational Diagrams Show relationships of space, time, energy, matter.
Jupiter 5th planet from the sun. Largest planet. Over 300 X bigger than Earth. Almost totally made of hydrogen and heliem. Storms.
Projectile motion Free fall in two dimensions. EX: a rocket after its engines stop, a high jumper making a jump, baseball thrown into the air.
Male Sex Hormones The anterior pituitary produces follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)
Molecule A well-defined group of covalently-bonded atoms.
Veins Depend on skeletal muscle activity to propel blood back to the heart. Veins have one-way valves that keep blood flowing towards the heart.
The bathyal zone "Dark ocean". Shallowest layer which extends down to about 2,000 meters below sea level. Impossible for light to penetrate so no plant life found. Animals feed on other animals.
Roger Bacon (1214-1294) A philosopher and proponent of experimental science who urged people to reject religious dogma and "look at the world".
Thomas Aquinas (1224-1274) Theologian. Made the distinction between natural truth and revealed truth.
Francis Bacon (1561-1626) A philosopher who advocated experimentalism as a way to verify and rigorously test all things.
Galileo (1564-1642) A mathemetician that advocated the view of Copernicus that the Earth is round and revolves around the sun.
John Ray (1627-1705) Naturalist who noted that fossils were the remnants of once living organisms.
James Hutton (1726 - 1797) Scottish geologist who proposed the idea of gradualism to explain changes in the earth's surface. This idea states that major geologic features of the earth are the cumulative result of continuous but slow processes.
Georges Cuvier (1769-1832) The French anatomist who developed the science of paleontology. He also proposed the theory of catastrophism to explain boundaries in the fossil record.
Charles Lyell (1797-1875) Scottish geologist who proposed the theory called uniformitarianism. This idea states that geological structures are the result of slow gradual processes that operate in the present day.
Charles Darwin (1809-1882) The English naturalist who developed the theory of evolution by natural selection based on observations made on a trip around the world on the H.M.S. Beagle.
Aristotle (384-322BC) A Greek philosopher who identified four elements: earth, air, fire, and water.
Mendels 3 Generations (P) Parent (F1) First Filial (F2) Second Filial. Examined traits of true breeding pea plants. Crossed smooth (S) with wrinkled (s). F1 all smooth. F2 3/4 smooth and 1/4 wrinkled.
Dalton's Atomic Theory of Matter 1) All matter composed of individual atoms. 2) An element is a type of matter composed of one type of atom with a characteristic mass. 3) A compound is a type of matter composed of two or more elements in fixed ratios. 4) A chemical reaction consists of t
Sequence of events that controls human heartbeat? 1. Impulse arrival at the sinotrial node. 2. Spread of depolarization across the atria and to the atrioventricular node. 3. Contraction of the atria. 4. Impulse delay. 5. Movement of the impulse towards the apex of the heart and contraction of ventricular
Mercury 1st planet from the sun. smallest planet, dense core of iron surrounded by a layer of silicates.
2 main parts of the nervous system The central nervous system (including brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system.
3 major classes of neurons Sensory, interneurons, motor neurons.
3 major parts of the brain stem medulla oblongata, the pons, and the midbrain.
3 major parts of the human brain Cerebrum, brain stem, cerebellum.
3 Parts of an atom Protons, neutrons, electrons
3 Types of Cartilage Hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage.
3 Types of Microstructure Striated, cardiac, smooth.
3 ways muscles are described location, control, microstructure.
4 States in which matter can be found solid, liquid, gas, plasma.
5 functions of muscles Movement, posture control, support for soft tissue, guarding body opening, and maintaining body temperature.
6 levels of ecology organism, population, community, ecosystem, biome, biosphere
Abiotic component of environment consists of nonliving physical and chemical factors including: temperature, water, light availability, wind, substrate, pH, periodic disturbances.
abiotic factors Non-lining factors; Temperature, water, light availability, wind, substrate, pH, periodic disturbances.
Acceleration Any change in the speed of an object. Acceleration is a vector quantity. The change in an objects velocity is a more precise way to talk about acceleration, because the direction of the change must also be included in the description.
Acid-Base reactions When acids and bases are reacted they always produce water and another compound known chemically as a salt. They liberate heat. EX: Vinegar and baking soda.
Atlantic Ocean 2nd largest ocean. Covers about 20% of Earth’s surface. Contains more salt than other oceans. Temperature and weather systems vary.
Venus 2nd planet from the sun. mass is 82% of earths – close in size. Carbon dioxide atmosphere, small amount of nitrogen and trace elements. Volcanoes.
Mars 4th planet from the sun. reddish appearance caused by rust on the surface. Thin atmosphere compared to Earth. 2 moons.
Plasma 55% of blood is made of this. It contains nutrients, wastes, hormones, and proteins in a water solution.
Jupiter 5th planet from the sun. Largest planet. Over 300 X bigger than Earth. Almost totally made of hydrogen and heliem. Storms.
Saturn 6th planet from the sun. Second largest planet. Has rings made of ice with rock and dust. Largely made of hydrogen with small amounts of helium and other trace elements. Storms.
Uranus 7th planet from the sun. Third largest planet. Calmer then other gas giants because it’s smaller/less gravity. Made of hydrogen, helium, methane and tiny amounts of trace elements.
Peninsula A body of land that is surrounded by water on three sides.
Channel A body of water that connects two larger bodies of water. Also a part of a river or harbor that is deep enough to let ships sail through.
Tundra A cold, treeless area; it is the coldest biome.
Epiglottis A flap of tissue that prevents food from entering the trachea.
Moraine A glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated debris.
Hypothesis A guess about the outcome of the change to the system of the phenomenon being studied.
Dune A hill or ridge made of sand. Dunes are shaped by the wind and change all the time.
Mesa A land formation with a flat area on top and steep walls – usually occurring in dry areas.
Ocean A large body of saltwater that surrounds a continent. Oceans cover more than two-thirds of the Earth’s surface.
Lake A large body of water surrounded by land on all sides. Really huge lakes are often called seas.
Plateau A large, flat area of land that is higher than the surrounding land.
River A large, flowing body of water that usually empties into a sea or ocean.
Fjord A long, narrow sea inlet that is bordered by steep cliffs.
Valley A low place between mountains.
Delta A low, watery land formed at the mouth of a river. It is formed from the silt, sand and small rocks that flow downstream in the river and are deposited in the delta.
Kidneys A major component of the excretory system, are located on the dorsal body wall and function in the filotration of blood to produce urine.
Primary Productivity A measure of the incorporation of energy (usually solar) into bodies of organisms.
Col A mountain pass.
Volcano A mountainous vent in the Earth’s crust. When it erupts, it spews out lava, ashes, and hot gases from deep inside the Earth.
Isthmus A narrow strip of land connecting two larger landmasses. An isthmus has water on two sides.
Geyser A natural hot spring that occasionally sprays water and steam above the ground.
Gulf A part of the ocean (or sea) that is partly surrounded by land (it is usually larger than a bay).
Systole A phase of a heartbeat in which the heart contracts and blood is pumped.
Island A piece of land that is surrounded by water.
Cape A pointed piece of land that sticks out into a sea, ocean, lake or river.
Limbic System A primitive part of the brain responsible for emotions and memory.
Hill A raised area or mound of land.
Action Potential A rapid and relatively drastic change in the membrane potential of the nerve cell.
Depolarization of a Nerve Cell A reduction in the electrical gradient across the membrane. A stimulus on the receptors of the nerve cell triggers depolarization. Can trigger an action potential.
Atoll A ring (or partial ring) of coral that forms an island in an ocean or sea.
Sphincter A ring shaped modified muscle that is able to open and close.
Screw A screw is a simple machine that is able to turn torque into linear force.
Lagoon A shallow body of water that is located alongside a coast.
Glacier A slowly moving river of ice.
Pond A small body of water surrounded by land. A pond is smaller than a lake
Cliff A steep face of rock and soil.
Tributary A stream or river that flows into a larger river.
Swamp A type of freshwater wetland that has spongy, muddy land and a lot of water. Many trees and shrubs grow in swamps.
Marsh A type of freshwater, brackish water or saltwater wetland that is found along rivers, ponds, lakes, and coasts. Marsh plants grow up out of the water.
Macrophages A type of white blood cell that travels within connective tissue to find pathogens.
Desert A very dry area.
Mountain A very tall high, natural place on Earth – higher than a hill. The tallest mountain on Earth is Mt. Everest.
Tendons A very tough connective tissue which connects muscle to bone. Consists of many collagen fibers.
Caldera A volcanic feature formed by the collapse of a volcano into itself, making it a special form of volcanic crater.
Molecule A well-defined group of covalently-bonded atoms.
Wheel and axle A wheel and axle is a simple machine that uses the turning motion of a crank to turn the axle. A cable attached to the axle then is wound around the axle (the applied force) to lift an object(the resultant force).
Sound A wide inlet of the sea or ocean that is parallel to the coast line; it often separates a coastline from a nearby island.
Prairie A wide, relatively flat area of land that has grasses and only a few trees.
Diencephalon Above the midbrain and made from the thalamus and hypothalamus.
Cardiac Sphincter Acts as a valve and prevents food from backing up to the esophogus.
Follicle-stimulating Hormone (FSH) Acts on cells to help in sperm maturation.
Subatomic Particles After Dalton, it was shown that atoms are actually divisible into subatomic particles, and elements can have more than one mass (depending on the number of neutrons in an atom of that element).
Intercalated Muscle Aid in communication between cells.
Matter-energy Continuum All matter and energy in the universe are just in different parts of the same continuum.
ECG (electrocardiogram) Allows cardiologists to diagnose various heart abnormalities.
Adipose Tissue Also known as fat tissue. Is a kind of connective tissue. Composed of cells whose primary function is to store fat.
Expain a geologic timeline. An Eon is divided into Eras which is divided into periods which is divided into epochs.
Wetland An area of land that is often wet; the soil is often low in oxygen.
South China Sea An area of the Pacific Ocean located not far north of the Equator, just off of the eastern coast of Asia. It is an area of the ocean partially surrounded by land masses and islands. The tropical waters of the South China Sea are also an area of great biol
Positive Feedback Loop An effector elicits a response to a stimulus, which exaggerates the stimulus. EX: Uterine contractions during labor.
Negative Feedback loop An effector elicits a response to a stimulus, which removes the stimulus. EX: Temperature regulation during labor.
Nerve impulse An electrical signal involving the flow of ions across the plasma membrane of a neuron.
Equator An imaginary circle around the earth, halfway between the north and south poles.
Important distinction between magnetism and electric charge... An important distinction between magnetism and electric charge is that magnetic poles always occur in north-south pairs--there are no magnetic monopoles.
Tissue An interrelated system of cells that serve a common function within the body and have similar structure.
Acceleration Any change in the speed of an object. Acceleration is a vector quantity. The change in an objects velocity is a more precise way to talk about acceleration, because the direction of the change must also be included in the description.
Compound Eyes Arthopods have them and they are made of thousands of ommatidia.
Isotope Atom is missing or has an extra neutron.
Matter-energy Continuum All matter and energy in the universe are just in different parts of the same continuum.
ECG (electrocardiogram) Allows cardiologists to diagnose various heart abnormalities.
Adipose Tissue Also known as fat tissue. Is a kind of connective tissue. Composed of cells whose primary function is to store fat.
Expain a geologic timeline. An Eon is divided into Eras which is divided into periods which is divided into epochs.
Wetland An area of land that is often wet; the soil is often low in oxygen.
South China Sea An area of the Pacific Ocean located not far north of the Equator, just off of the eastern coast of Asia. It is an area of the ocean partially surrounded by land masses and islands. The tropical waters of the South China Sea are also an area of great biol
Positive Feedback Loop An effector elicits a response to a stimulus, which exaggerates the stimulus. EX: Uterine contractions during labor.
Negative Feedback loop An effector elicits a response to a stimulus, which removes the stimulus. EX: Temperature regulation during labor.
Nerve impulse An electrical signal involving the flow of ions across the plasma membrane of a neuron.
Equator An imaginary circle around the earth, halfway between the north and south poles.
Important distinction between magnetism and electric charge... An important distinction between magnetism and electric charge is that magnetic poles always occur in north-south pairs--there are no magnetic monopoles.
Tissue An interrelated system of cells that serve a common function within the body and have similar structure.
Acceleration Any change in the speed of an object. Acceleration is a vector quantity. The change in an objects velocity is a more precise way to talk about acceleration, because the direction of the change must also be included in the description.
Compound Eyes Arthopods have them and they are made of thousands of ommatidia.
Isotope Atom is missing or has an extra neutron.
Liquids Atoms are closely packed, but not as closely packed as solids. Packed loose enough to flow. Under conditions of increased or decreased pressures, liquids can be converted into solids or gases.
Solids Atoms are packed closely together and not able to move except in vibration. Low kinetic energy.
Ionic Bonding Atoms lose or gain electrons to make each other complete (Electrons are not shared).
Gases Atoms that comprise matter in the state of a gas are not packed together at all, but move around freely. Atoms have high kinetic energy. Decreased or increased temperature can cause it to change to liquid or plasma.
Unlike charges do what? Attract
The abyssal zone Beneath the bathyal zone. Descends to about 6,000 meters. Only animals that can withstand enormous pressure can live there.
Ionic Bond Between non metals and metals.
Veins Blood vessels that carry blood to the heart.
How does a human body fight disease? Bodies first lines of Defense: Skin, Mucous Membranes, Secretions. Second line of defense: Phagocytes (these cells ingest invading organisms), antimicrobial proteins (found in the plasma of the bloodstream, these proteins either attack pathogens directly
Bay Body of water that is partly enclosed by land (and is usually smaller than a gulf).
Osteocytes Bone making cells
Artery Branches into many small capillaries, which have a greater total cross-sectional area than the artery. Movement of blood from the arteries to capillaries results in a decrease in the rate of blood flow. As blood flows from the capillaries into the veins,
Pepsin Breaks down proteins into small polypeptides.
Salivary amylase Breaks down starches into smaller polysaccharides.
Thick Filaments Bundles of myosin molecules.
Antoine Lavoisier Carried out experiments that showed the law of conservation of mass.
Arteries Carry blood away from the heart.
Components of a neuron Cell body, dendrites, axon, myelin sheath, terminal branches, synaptic branches.
Sensory Receptors Cells that convert various stimuli into a change in the cell membrane, often by detection of the stimuli by membrane-bound protiens.
chondrocytes Cells that make cartilage. Found in small pockets in the matrix called lacunae.
Fibroblasts Cells that produce fibers such as collagen.
What makes up 45% of blood? Cells. Some red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells and platelets.
3 major parts of the human brain Cerebrum, brain stem, cerebellum.
Clotting factors Chemicals that damaged tissues and platelets release that leat to clot formation in a multi-step process.
Electric Circuit Complete, unbroken loop. Flow of electrons must be able to travel from the power source to sink in a continuous path.
Striated Muscle Composed of very long, multinucleated cells called muscle fibers. EX: Skeletal muscles.
Dense irregular connective tissue Confers strength and elasticity in multiple directions and is found in the skin and organ sacs.
Ligaments Connect bone to bone and have many elastic fibers.
Thin Filaments Consist of two strands of actin with associated proteins.
Peripheral Nervous System Consists of sensory and motor nerves. Sensory nerves receive sensory input. Motor nerves deliver motor output.
Skeletal Muscle Consits of a bundle of muscle fibers. Each muscle fiber consits of mofibrils.
Inner Ear of Humans Contains cupulae and otoliths, both of which provide orientation information.
Ground Substance Contains mostly water and allows for diffusion.
Fluid connective tissue Contains plasma and cells, and is known as blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid.
Middle Ear Contains three bones (malleus, incus and stapes) which conduct and amplify sound vibrations.
hypothalamus Controls hunger, temperature, thirst, mating, sexual response, and pleasure. Serves as a link to the endocrine system and is involved in maintaining circadian rhythms.
Frontal Lobe Controls voluntary centers. The left side frontal lobe is involved in controlling speech.
Pepsinogen Converted by HCl into its active form, pepsin.
Motor neurons Convey messages from the central nervous system to effectors, the muscle or gland cells that carry out the response.
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelial Tissue Cuboid in shape, multiple cell layers, funcions in secretion and protection. EX: Sweat glands and thyroid gland.
Simple Cuboidal Epithelial Tissue Cuboid shape results in increased volume. Funcitons in secretion. EX: salivary gland and thyroid gland.
Nature VS. Nurture Debate concerning the origin of animal behaviors. Genetically based innate behaviors represent the "nature" component and learned behaviors represent the "nurture" component.
Canyon Deep valley with very steep sides; often carved from the Earth by a river.
What criteria is used to classify or describe rocks and minerals? Density, luster, color, streak, hardness, cleavage.
Factors that affect the growth and development of plants and animals Density-Dependent, intraspecific competition, adaptations to avoid predators.
Veins Depend on skeletal muscle activity to propel blood back to the heart. Veins have one-way valves that keep blood flowing towards the heart.
Diffraction Diffraction is a result of the wave properties of light, and occurs when light passes through a small opening (as in the double slit experiment) or passes by the edges of an opaque surface.
Explain the difference between distance and displacement. Displacement can be thought of as the most direct path from the beginning to the end, whereas distance refers to the exact path that was taken.
Erosion Displacement of solids from the ocean currents, wind, water, or ice.
Albertus Magnus Dominican Archbishop and philosopher, known as a teacher to St. Thomas Aquinas.
Voltage Don't confuse with electric current! It's provided by the power source and more akin to the push of the electrons rather than the size of the flow of electrons.
Where does filtrate go when it leaves the kidneys? Down the ureter, into the bladder, and exits the body though the urethra.
Einstein and E=MC2 E is energy M is matter and C is the speed of light. This equation shows that energy and matter are part of the same thing.
Power Source EX: Battery (also called a cell), electric power grid main (such as a wall outlet).
Combustion reactions EX: explosion.
Sarcomere Each functional unit of a myofibril.
Consumers Eat other consumers and/or producers. EX: zooplankton, corals, shellfish, echinoderms, fish, marine animals.
What do atoms consist of? Electrons, protons, neutrons.
Name the four types of tissue in animals. Epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous tissue.
What does the follicle secrete before ovulation? Estrogen.
Lungs Excrete CO2 and H20.
Urogenital system Filters, stores, and removes wastes.
Ingestion First major role of digestive system. Begins in the mouth.
Clot Formation First, clotting factors convert the protein prothrombin to its active form, thrombin. Thrombin then converts the plasma protein fibrinogen to its active form fibrin.
Plain Flat lands that have only small changes in elevation.
Butte Flat-topped rock or hill formation with steep sides.
Newton's Law #3 For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. EX: Rocket ship.
Aponeuroses Form a covering for muscles. Thought to connect muscles to other muscles.
Igneous Rock Formed after molten rock, or magma, cools and solidifies.
Metamorphic Rock Formed from intense heat and pressure within the Earth's crust, which changes the chemical structure and physical properties of pre-existing rocks.
Sedimentary Rock Formed when layers of sediment build up, one layer atop another, creating pressure on the lowermost levels sufficient to compact the sediment into solid rock.
Fibrin Forms a sticky, fibrous clot that traps red blood cells.
Neptune Fourth largest planet; though it is more dense and has slightly more mass than Uranus. Not as calm as Uranus because density.
Platelets Fragments of cells that originate from the bone marrow and are involved in blood clotting.
Projectile motion Free fall in two dimensions. EX: a rocket after its engines stop, a high jumper making a jump, baseball thrown into the air.
Medulla oblongata Functions as a relay switch. Relays info to the thalamus.
Large intestine Functions in the absorption of water and the production of feces.
Excretory System Functions in the disposal of metabolic wastes and in maintaining a proper fluid balance in the body.
Reduction Gaining an electron by a molecule, atom, or ion.
Independent Variable Has the "I" which means "I" the experimenter is going to change. EX: Using different meds to lower fever. Meds independent, fever dependent.
Independent Variable Has the "I" which means "I" the experimenter is going to change. EX: Using different meds to lower fever. Meds independent, fever dependent.
Scalar quantities Have a measured aspect to them.
Vector quantities Have both a measured aspect and direction to them.
Convection Heat transferred by liquids.
Conduction Heat transferred by solids.
What do mast cells produce? Histamine during an allergic response.
Distance How far an object has traveled. The difference between where an object started moving and where it stopped.
3 Types of Cartilage Hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage.
Refraction If the surface struck by light is not opaque, and the light penetrates the surface and begins to travel through a new medium, this phenomenon is known as refraction. EX: Rainbows.
Pluto In 2006, scientists reclassified Pluto as a dwarf planet.
Law of Conservation of Mass In every chemical change, an equal amount of matter exists before and after the change.
Secondary Consumer In food chain, feeds on primary consumers.
Tertiary Consumer In food chain, feeds on secondary consumers.
Primary Consumer In food chain, it feeds on primary producers.
Consumers (all) In food chain, they feed on primary producers or other consumers. Because of entropy, energy transfer through the food chain is insufficient. In ecological systems, energy does not cycle; it is constantly dissipated and lost as heat energy.
Quaternary Consumer In food chian, feeds on Tertiary consumers.
Primary Producer In the food chain, forms the base of the food pyramid. They have organized systems that harness light energy from the sun.
Connective Tissue Includes all tissue that are not epithilial, muscle, or nervous.
Supportive connective tissue Includes bone and cartilage, which are live tissues.
Variation Individual members of a population may differ in their characteristics.
Atoms Individual particles that compose matter.
Reproductive Advantage Individuals with favored traits have a reproductive advantage.
Terrestrial Planets Inner planets; Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars.
Sensory Input
Parietal Lobe Involved in the perception of touch and pressure. Also plays a role in speech and reading.
Countercurrent Exchange System Involves the opposite flow of adjacent fluids in order to maximize rates of transfer between the two fluid systems. EX: Bluefin Tuna.
Gas Exchange (respiration) Involves the uptake of oxygen from the air and the release of carbon dioxide.
Kinetic Energy Kinetic energy is the energy of motion.
Sea Large body of salty water that is often connected to an ocean. May be partly or completely surrounded by land.
Cave Large hole in the ground or in the side of a hill or mountain.
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithilial Tissue Large irregularly layered cells that have microvilli along one side. Function in absorption. Found in nasal passages and respitory surfaces.
Asteroid Belt Large number of asteroids between Mars and Jupiters orbits.
Pacific Ocean Largest body of water on Earth. Covers about 1/3 of the planet. Around almost the entire circumference is the Pacific Ring of Fire, a belt of frequent volcanic and seismic activity caused by the movement of tectonic plates. The Pacific Ocean has over 25,0
John Dalton Lavoisier's hypothesis that matter was composed of indestructabe building blocks led to Dalton's atomic theory of matter.
Lever Like a sea-saw. Applies a multiplied amount of force to another object.
Interneurons Link sensory and motor neurons. They synapse only with other neurons and typically have multiple dendrites. Their structure allows it to send impulses to different locations.
biotic factors Living organisms in the environment.
Organ of Corti Located in the basilar membrane, converts the vibrations into nerve impulses.
Barents Sea Located where the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans meet. Currents from the Atlantic Ocean carry warm water up into the Barents Sea, all the way from the Gulf of Mexico, so there is a greater amount and diversity of plant and animal life.
Simple Columnar Epithelial Tissue Long column-like cells that are large in volume and a single cell layer thick. Functions in secretion of large amounts of enzymes. Found in lining of the stomach.
Types of connective tissue Loose connective tissue, adipose tissue, and reticular connective tissue.
Oxidation Loss of an electron by a molecule, atom, or ion.
Loose connective tissue (areolar tissue) Made of extracellular matrix and various types of cells all within a ground substance.
Haversian System Made up of concentric layers of bone matrix, a central canal with a blood vessel and a system of connecting canals.
Scientific Method Make hypothosis about sets of observations and test the hypothesis. Observations, hypothisis, experiment, data, conclusion.
Stratified Squamous Epithelial Tissues Many cell layers thick and function in protection. EX: lining of the esophagus and skin.
Elastic Tissue Many elastic fibers and is present in the walls of blood vessels.
Deposition Material is added to a landform. Wind, water or ice create a sediment deposit.
Matter Matter is what makes up the universe as we know it. Matter is comprised of atoms. Atoms act as the building block for all matter. Cannot be created or destroyed.
Sperm are produced by what? Meiosis
Periodic Table Mendeleev organized the known elements into a table using atomic mass and chemical reactivity. Later it was organizaed by atomic number.
Which atoms tend to lose electrons? Metal atoms.
Capillaries Microscopic blood vessels that allow for the exchange between blood and the interstitial fluid in tissues.
Epithelial tissue Mostly cellular, has one cell layer exposed to the environment. Functions as protection, to control permeability and for secretion.
5 functions of muscles Movement, posture control, support for soft tissue, guarding body opening, and maintaining body temperature.
Stratified Columnar Epithilial Tissue Multiple cell layers thick. Composed of cells that have a large volume. Functions in secretion and protection. Found in the urethra, mouth and epiglottis.
Strait Narrow body of water that connects two larger bodies of water.
Smooth Muscle No striations and is made of smaller cells that are tapered at the ends. Found in round hollow organs like the stomach. Responsible for peristalis.
abiotic factors Non-lining factors; Temperature, water, light availability, wind, substrate, pH, periodic disturbances.
Which atoms tend to gain electrons? Non-metal atoms.
Virus Noncellular infectious particles composed of a protein capsid and genetic material, either DNA or RNA. They have no metabolic processes and are therefore not considered living. They rely on the components of a host cell in order to replicate themselves.
Grand Banks Northwest region of the north Atlantic Ocean, just off of Newfoundland, there is an area of underground plateaus that caused the oceanic waters there to be particularly shallow.
Plasmas Not as common, but much matter in universe is in this state. Ionized gas at extremely high temperature. Contains a positive charge. EX: Stars and Sun.
What do organisms need to balance in order to maintain homeostasis? Nutrients, wastes, temperature, the immune system and reproductive cycles.
Simple Squamous Epithelial Tissue One cell layer thick and facilitates diffusion. Found in alveoli of the lungs.
Characteristics of Living Things Order, reproduction, growth and development, energy use, response to the environment, homeostasis.
Statocysts Organ of balance in crustaceans. Contain statoliths; stones that aid the organism in obtaining positional information.
Ecology Organism, population, community, ecosystem, biome, biosphere.
Producers Organisms that create food energy from non-living substances, like minerals, and an external energy source, such as sunlight. EX: Photosynthetic plants, algae.
Endotherms Organisms that regulate their temperature internally.
Gas Giants Outer planets; Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune.
Motor Output
Electrons Over 1800 times lighter than protons and have a negative charge.
The Rock Cycle Over time, each type of rock can be transformed into one or more of the other kinds. Sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rock can all be eroded and weathered, and the resulting sediment transformed into sedimentary rock again. Any rock, after it moves u
Caribbean Sea Part of Atlantic Ocean southeast of North America. Bordered to the north and east by a chain of islands called the Antilles, which include Cuba, Jamaica and Puerto Rico. It’s a tropical sea with coral reefs.
Physical Currents Physical currents in electrical circuits consist of electrons moving through a wire from an area of high potential energy to an area of low potential energy.
Divergent Plate Boundaries Plates move apart.
Transform Plate Boundaries Plates move past one another in opposite directions.
Convergent Plate Boundaries Plates move together.
Protons Positive charge. Each element has a characteristic number of protons.
Potential Energy Potential energy is the stored energy of position possessed by an object.
Collagen Present in all connective tissue. Holds tissue together.
Systolic Pressure Pressure is gradually let out of the sphygmomanometer until the first sound of blood trickling can be heard.
Blood Clotting Process that involves the plugging of broken blood vessels though the actions of chemicals that are present in the blood.
Melanocytes Cells Produce pigment melanin
Liver Produces urea.
3 Parts of an atom Protons, neutrons, electrons
position (x) Refers to a location with respect to a defined coordinate system.
Time (t) Refers to an instant in time.
Reflection Reflection happens when light strikes an opaque surface. In specular reflection, light will reflect from a surface at the same angle from which it originated. If the surface is rougher or more granular, then the reflection will be diffuse, meaning that th
Ectotherms Regulate their temperature through theri environment.
Pyloric Sphincer Regulates the passage of food into the small intestine.
Class Diagrams Relate components AND their processes.
Thalamus Relays info to the cerebrum
mesencephalon (midbrain) Relays visual and auditory data to the cerebrum. Maintains consciusness.
Skin Removes water, salt, and urea through sweat glands.
Like charges do what? Repel
Cerebellum Responsible for coordination and control.
Plate Tectonics Right under the Earths’ crust there are plates. Near the plate boundaries is geological activity such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
Heredity and Inheritance Scientists believed in "blending" until the 1900's. In 1800's Mendel conducted experiments with peas and discovered "alternate versions of heritable factors" known as genes today.
Chief cells Secrete pepsinogen
Corpus Luteum Secretes both estrogen and progesterone.
Fixed action patterns (FAPs) Seem to be primarily genetically-based stereotypical behaviors that can possibly aid in an individual's survival.
Population Changes Selection causes the relative frequency of traits to change over time.
Mechanoreceptors Sensitive to pressure changes.
Functions of the human brain Sensory interpretation, reflex actions, thought, coordination, memory, emotions, and linkage to other organ systems.
3 major classes of neurons Sensory, interneurons, motor neurons.
Relational Diagrams Show relationships of space, time, energy, matter.
Flow Chart Shows energy relationships.
Alveoli Site of gas exchange.
Components of the excretor system Skin, lungs, liver, urogenital system.
Neutrons Slightly heavier than protons and have no charge.
Canaliculae Small canals that branch out from the blood vessels and nourish the osteocytes.
Nephrons Small filtration units in the kidney. One nephron consists of a long tube and associated capillaries.
Where does most of the chemical digestion of food occur? Small intestine
Cove Small, horseshoe-shaped body of water along the coast; the water is surrounded by land formed of soft rock.
Gravity Something that distinguishes it from electromagnetic force is that it is only attractive, where electromagnetic force has both an attractive and repulsive component. The more massive objects are, the more gravitational force they are able to exert. The su
Sound Waves Sound waves are actually a disruption of the medium through which they travel in an organized pattern. Sound waves that have longer wavelengths sound like lower tones. Sound waves with shorter wavelengths sound like higher tones.
Speed Speed is how fast an object is moving, without regard to its direction. Speed is a scalar quantity (a hint to remembering: both terms begin with the letter "s").
Mesenchymal Cells Stem cells that give rise to fibroblasts or other cells.
Electroreceptors Stimulated by changes in electrical potential.
Luternizing Hormone (LH) Stimulates cells in the seminiferous tubules to secrete testosterone.
Adipose cells Store fat
3 Types of Microstructure Striated, cardiac, smooth.
Functions of connective tissue Structual support, transport, protection, tissue to tissue connection, energy storage, and immune defense.
Caytalyst Substance that accelerated the speed of a chemical reaction without itself being transformed or consumed by the reaction.
Does the fossil record support or refute Darwin's Theory of Evolution? Supports it. different fossils are found in different layers and they change through time. Fossil record shows evidence for the origin of cetaceans in the form of transitional fossils. Transitional fossils are fossils of organisms that seem to present a d
Southern Ocean Surrounds Antarctica. Strongest Average winds on the planet.
Timeline Temporal relationships.
Dense regular connective tissue includes what? Tendons, aponeuroses, ligaments, elastic tissue.
Displacement The absolute distance and the direction that the object moved to reach its destination.
Male Sex Hormones The anterior pituitary produces follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)
Fusion The basic concept behind any fusion reaction is to bring two or more atoms very close together, close enough that the strong nuclear force in their nuclei will pull them together into one larger atom.
Source The beginning of a river.
Cell theory The cell is the smallest structural unit of living organisms. Cells arise from preexisting cells.
2 main parts of the nervous system The central nervous system (including brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system.
Conductor The conduit through which the electrons move. EX: Metal wires are typically the conductors in electric circuits.
Kinematics The description of motion.
Selection The environment selects individuals with a reproductive advantage, allowing them to contribute more offspring to the population.
Electric Current The flow of large numbers of electron s through a conductor.
Earth The four elements which make up over 95% of Earth's mass are iron, oxygen, silicon, and magnesium.
neurons The functional units of the nervous system. Contains organelles. Function as conductors of electricity and conduct sensory information in the form of electrical impulses.
Gradualism The hypothesis that major geologic structures are the cumulative result of slow, continuous processes.
Uniformitarianism The idea that geologic structures result from uniform and gradual processes. This idea was proposed by James Hutton and later by Charles Lyell. The term itself was coined by William Whewell in 1832.
Continent The land mass on Earth is divided into continents. The seven current continents are Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, South America.
Retina The major light-absorbing structure within the vertebrate eye.
Reproductive Process in Humans The menstrual cycle is a reproductive cycle that occurs in humans and other primates and is characterized by the shedding of the nonpregnent endometrium. The estrous cycle occurs in other mammals and involves the reabsorption of the nonpregnant endometriu
Female Reproductive Cycle The female reproductive cycle consists of the ovarian cycle and the uterine cycle, which are both controlled by hormones. The ovarian cycle involves the growth of the follicle and the release of an egg. When the egg is released, the follicle becomes the c
Newton's Law #2 The more mass you have the more acceleration you must have to get the same results.
Eyespots The most primitive eyes. Photosensitive pigments embedded in cell membranes.
What does the detection of stimuli by membrane-bound proteins result in? The opening or closing of ion channels, causing changes in the membrane potential and firing of an action potential.
Set Point The optimal value of a physiological variable. Violations of a body's set point trigger homeostatic responses in the body.
Pinna The outer part of the ear. Channels air vibrations, or sound, down the outer ear to the tympanic membrane.
Cerebrum The part of the brain associated with the intellect.
Thermoreception The perception of temerature changes.
Diastole The phase of a heartbeat in which the heart muscle relaxes and the chambers of the heart fill with blood.
Diastolic Pressure The pressure of the cuff (sphygmomanometer) is further lowered until no sound is heard. At this point, blood in the artery is flowing freely.
Energy The process by which matter changes from one state, or position in space, to another.
Photosynthesis The process by which plants, some bacteria, and some protistans use the energy from sunlight to produce sugar, which cellular respiration converts into ATP, the "fuel" used by all living things.
Weathering The process of breaking down rocks, soils and their minerals through direct contact with the atmosphere.
Arabian Sea The region of the Indian Ocean just southeast of the Arabian Peninsula is known as the Arabian Sea.
Ionization The removal of electrons from the atoms that the matter is made of.
Geomorphology The scientific field that investigates how landforms are formed on the earth (and other planets).
Arctic Ocean The smallest and shallowest of Earth's oceans, occupying an area of just over 14 million square kilometers. It’s the coldest ocean and much of it is frozen over in winter months.
Homeostasis The stable environment that is maintained within the body.
Geology The study of the history of the earth, especially as recorded in rocks.
Metabolism The sum total of all catabolic (breakdown) and anabolic (synthesis) reactions in the body.
Catastrophism The theory, proposed by James Cuvier, that the earth’s landscape is shaped by global catastrophes.
Indian Ocean The third largest ocean in the world. Bordered by the Southern Ocean to the south, Asia (and the subcontinent of India) to the north, Africa and the Arabian Peninsula to the west, and Australia to the east. Rich with oil reserves; 40% of all the oil in th
Radiation The transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves.
Membrane Potential The voltage measured across the plasma membrane of the cell.
Comets Their orbits are harder to follow because they are not a simple oval. Made of ice and dust, and as they travel the pressure of radiation from the Sun causes some of this dust and ice to stream behind the comet like a “tail”.
Differences between light and sound There are two major differences between light waves and sound waves. The first is speed. All light waves travel the same speed--3.00 x 108 meters per second. Sound waves can travel at any range of speeds. the second major difference is medium.
(blank) Light waves do not need a medium through which to travel; sound waves, on the other hand, do require a medium through which to travel. Light from stars is able to travel through space to be visible on Earth. Sound,on the other hand, requires moecules that
(blank) In space sound cannot travel because the distributin of molecules is too sparse to form sound waves. This is also why sound waves under water do not sound like sound waves through air. water is a much more dense medium, it makes the sound waves much more
Wired in parallel There can be a split in the circuit as long as it is reintegrated before returning to the power source.
Density-dependent These factors include resources such as food or nesting sites. The magnitude of the effects of these factors depends on the population size.
What happens when a muscle contracts? Thick filaments slide along thin filaments, causing the entire sarcomere to decrease in length.
Newton's Law #1 Things tend to keep on doing what they are doing unless acted upon. EX: Yo-yo.
Where does oxiginated blood enter the heart? Through the left atrium where it is pumped into the left ventricle, through the aorta, and then off to the tissues of the body.
Where does deoxigenated blood enter the heart? Through the right atrium where contractions send it through the right ventricle and to the pulminary arteries, which will send it to the lungs.
What is necessary to describe motion in one dimension? Time (t) and position (x). EX: train on straight track.
Trachea branches Trachea brances into two bronchi, which further branch into smaller tubes called bronchioles, and end as air sacks called alveoli.
Bone Type of supportive connective tissue. Composed of living cells that are embedded in a matrix composed of collagen and salts. Made up of repeating units called a Haversian System.
Polar Bonds Unequal sharing of electrons.
Bacteria Unicellular microorganisms. They are typically a few micrometres long and have many shapes including spheres, rods, and spirals. Bacteria are vital in recycling nutrients. Bacteria are prokaryotes. Unlike animals and other eukaryotes, bacterial cells do n
Velocity Velocity is how fast an object is moving in a particular direction. Velocity is a vector quantity (a hint to remembering: both terms begin with the letter "v").
The hadal zone Very deepest parts of the ocean. Largely unexplored by humans because difficult to survive extreme pressure and temperature.
Inner Ear Vibrations travel through fluid that fills the coils of the cochlea, which results in vibrations of the basilar membrane.
Bending Light Visible light can be redirected,or bent, under certain circumstances. There are two major forms of bending light: reflection and refraction. A mirror will reflect light in a predictible manner.
Van der Waals interactions Weak interactions between regions of nonpolar molecules, resulting from charge fluctuations within molecules.
Extracellular Matrix What connective tissue is made of other than cells. It's composed of ground substance and protein fibers.
Sphygmomanometer What is used to measure blood pressure.
Dependent Variable What you are trying to change. In the tomatoe plants fertilizer=independent variable. Growth of plants=dependent variable bc. We're trying to change it.
Dependent Variable What you are trying to change. In the tomatoe plants fertilizer=independent variable. Growth of plants=dependent variable bc. We're trying to change it.
Waterfall When a river falls off steeply, there is a waterfall.
Acid-Base reactions When acids and bases are reacted they always produce water and another compound known chemically as a salt. They liberate heat. EX: Vinegar and baking soda.
electrical potential When an electric charge is in the vicinity of other charges, it experiences a force (and begins to move). When an electrical force causes a charge to move through a distance, the force does work on that charge.
Series Circuit When electrons follow a single path from their source to their destination.
Parallel Circuit When more then one path is provided for the passage of electrons. Electrons divide themselves among the separate conductors and current flows in each of the paths.
Co-valent Bonding When two atoms are able to share electrons.
Estuary Where a river meets the sea or ocean.
Cerebrum Where the processing of info occurs.
Coastal Upwelling Winds blowing offshore (or toward the ocean) push water away from the shore. Deep, colder water rises to replace the water that has been blown out into the ocean. This cold water from deep off the ocean floor brings many nutrients to the surface.
Non Polar Bonds With an equal sharing of electrons.
Importance of Systems and Subsystems Without understanding the organization of a system, it would be impossible to understand the interactions and processes of the subsystems.
Postulate a basic principle that may be stated without direct proof.
Pulse a brief disturbance that travels through a medium
When can the speed can be very different from the velocity of an object? Give an example. a car moving in a circle at a rate of 20 miles per hour. Though the speed is constant (20 miles per hour), the velocity is said to be ever changing because the direction of the car as it moves through the circle is ever changing.
Scientific Law a concise statement that summarizes a fundamental relationship of nature
Resistor a device that changes the amount of current in a circuit of a set voltage, by changing the level of resistance.
Diode a device that is used to keep current moving in one direction.
Simple machine a device that requires only the use of one force to do work.
Visible Light a form of electromagnetic energy. That is, it is a subset of wavelengths found in the the electromagnetic spectrum.
Archipelago a group or chain of islands clustered together in a sea or ocean.
Chemical Reaction a rearrangement of atoms so the the products of the reaction are different than the reactants.
Wave a self-propagating disturbance that transfers energy from point to point through a medium
Wave Train a succession of similar waves
Wedge a variation on a ramp. The difference being that a wedge is used to separate objects.
Dopler Effect a wave compression or expansion.
Continuous Wave a wave generated by a continuous and regular disturbance
Transverse Wave a wave that propagates in a direction perpendicular to the direction of the disturbance
longitudinal wave a wave that propagates in the same direction as the disturbance of the medium
Pulley a wheel with a groove in the edge which holds a cable. Can reduce the amount of force required to lift a load by increasing the distance overwhich the work is done.
Oxidation/Reduction among the most commonly observed chemical reactions. EX: Metal that rusts.In an oxidation reaction a chemical loses electrons. In a reduction reaction a chemical gains electrons.
Theory an encompassing idea that provides a full explanation for a natural phenomenon
Downwelling another coastal happening. Onshore winds (or winds blowing toward the shore) push water toward the coast. This drives the nearshore surface water down and away from the coast.
Reflex any quick, automatic response to a stimulus. EX: Knee jerk.
The number used to describe a position is _______, but the position itself is ______. arbitrary, real.
Rip currents are a potentially dangerous effect of Longshore currents. Rip currents, sometimes called rip tides, can happen when Longshore currents bounce seaward because of a change in the bottom's structure. Breaks in sandbars are also optimal places for rips to hap
Adaptions to Avoid Predators camouflage, aposematic coloration, mimicry.
Intraspecific Competition can lead to density-dependent growth in populations.
Longshore Current caused when waves strike the beach at an angle creating a current that parallels the beach. Larger waves, which strike the beach less often at greater angles, create stronger Longshore currents. In areas where Longshore currents often occur, sandbars form
magnetism charged particles in the vicinity of a moving charge will experience a force. Magnetic fields cause charged particles to change direction of motion, but they do not cause a change in the speed of the particles motion.
Replacement reactions chemical reactions in which the components of the reacting compounds rearrange to form the chemical compounds in the products. This class of chemical reactions is broad.
Food Web complex set of interrelations between all the plants and animals in an ecosystem, which pass nutrients between them through the process of consumption, predation, and decay.
Abiotic component of environment consists of nonliving physical and chemical factors including: temperature, water, light availability, wind, substrate, pH, periodic disturbances.
Wired in series components such as light bulbs connected in a circuit along the same wire in a follow-the-leader manner. Components wired in series will each recieve the same amount of current.
electric circuit composed of a voltage source (such as a battery or a wall socket), a conductive material (such as a wire), and the ability for the flow of electrons to move from source to sink--that is, a circuit must make a closed loop.
Static Electricity created when an object gives up or gains electrons. Rubbing wool over something made of plastic or hard rubber gives that object a positive charge which will attract any object with a lesser charge. The wool gives up electrons to the plastic. This kind of
Climate in your place on the globe controls the weather where you live. Climate is the average weather pattern in a place over many years. So, the climate of Antarctica is quite different than the climate of a tropical island. Hot summer days are quite typical of
Temporal Lobe involved in the sense of smell and hearing.
Occipital lobe involved in vision and visual associations.
Weather is the mix of events that happen each day in our atmosphere including temperature, rainfall and humidity. Weather is not the same everywhere. Perhaps it is hot, dry and sunny today where you live, but in other parts of the world it is cloudy, raining or e
3 ways muscles are described location, control, microstructure.
Sound Wave longitudinal wave propagating through a medium
Myofibril made up of many thick filaments and thin filaments.
Sun makes up over 99% of the solar systems mass. 300,000X bigger than earth.
Switch manually controls the flow of electrons by a swing arm. In the open position, the circuit is not complete and no electrons flow. In the closed position the cvircuit is complete and the electrons resume flow.
3 major parts of the brain stem medulla oblongata, the pons, and the midbrain.
Lateral line organ of balance in fish. Consists of organs containing a moveable cupula, located in ridges along the outside of body.
6 levels of ecology organism, population, community, ecosystem, biome, biosphere
Trachea passageway for air into lungs.
Sensory neurons receive signals from the environment and transmit them to the central nervous system. Sensory neurons structure relates to its function, which could be to sense light, pressure, or the presence of chemicals.
Ramp (inclined plane) reduces the amount of force needed to raise an object (the load) upwards by moving it along at a small angle from the ground.
Asteroid small, rocky, airless chunks of matter.
4 States in which matter can be found solid, liquid, gas, plasma.
ultrasound sound at a frequency above the range of human hearing
Electrical resistance the degree to which an electrical component resists the flow of current.
Medium the material that vibrates as a wave propagates through it
Fission the nucleus of an atom splits into two or more smaller nuclei as fission products, and usually some by-product particles, Hence, fission is a form of elemental transmutation. Does produce nuclear waste when used as an energy source.
Mitosis the process by which a cell duplicates its genetic information (DNA), in order to generate two, identical, daughter cells.
Meiosis the process by which one diploid eukaryotic cell divides to generate haploid cells often called gametes.
atom the smallest unit of an element; atoms consist of protons, neutrons, and electrons
Ohms's law the voltage is equal to the current multiplied by the resistance.
Created by: killerklown on 2007-12-29



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