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AP HUG Ch. 7

Mr. Nyren's AP HUG Ch. 7: Religion

TermsDefinition
religion a system of beliefs and practices that attempts to order life in terms of culturally percieved ultimate priorities
secularism The idea that ethical and moral standards should be formulated and adhered to for life on Earth, not to accomodate the prescriptions of a deity and promises of a comfortable afterlife. A secular state is the opposite of a theocracy.
monotheistic relifion Belief system in which one supreme being is revered as a creator and arbiter of all that exists in the universe.
polytheistic religion Belief system in which multiple deities are revered as creators and arbiters of all that exists in the universe.
animistic religion The belief that inanimate objects, such as hills, trees, rocks, rivers, and other element of natural landscape, possess souls and can help or hinder human effort on Earth.
universalizing religion A belief system that espouses the idea that there is one true religion that is universal in scope. Adherents of universalizing religious systems often believe that their religion represents universal truths.
ethnic religion A religion that is particular to on, culturally distinct, group of people. Unlike universalizing religions, adherents of ethnic religions do not activelyseek converts through evangelism or missionary work.
Hinduism One of the oldest religions in the modern world, dating over 4000 years, and originating in the Indus River Valley of what is today part of Pakistan. Hinduism is unique among the world's religions in that it does not have a single founder.
caste system The strict social segregation of people --- specially in India's Hindu society --- on the basis of ancestry and occupation.
Buddhism Belief that enlightenment would come through knowledege, especially self-knowledge; elimination of greed, craving, and desire; complete honesty; and never hurting another person or animal.
Shintoism Religion located in Japan and related to Buddhism. Shintoism focuses particularly on nature and ancestor worship.
Taoism Focused on the proper form of political rule and on the oneness of humanity and nature.
Feng Shui The Chinese art and science of placement and orientation of tombs, dwellings, and buildings, and cities. Structures and objects are positioned in an effort to channel flows of sheng-chi ("life-breath") in favorable ways.
Confucianism A philosophy of ethics, education, and public service based on the writings of Confucius and traditionally thought of as one of the core elements of Chinese culture.
Judaism Religion with its roots in the teachings of Abraham (from Ur), who is credited with uniting his people to worship only one god.
diaspora a term discribing forceful or voluntary dispersal of a people from their homeland to a new place.
Zionism The movement to unite the Jewish people of the diaspora and to establish a national homeland for them in the promised land.
Christianity Religion based on the teachings of Jesus. According to the Christian teachings, Jesus is the son of God, placed on Earth to teach people how to live according to God's plan.
Eastern Orthodox Church One of the three major branches of Christianity
Roman Catholic Church One of the three major branches of Christianity
Protestant One of the three major branches of Christianity (along with the Eastern Orthodox Church & Roman Catholic Church)
Islam The youngest of the major world religions, Islam is based on the teachings of Muhammad. Acoording to to Islamic teachings, Muhammad received the truth directly from Allah in a series of revelation.
Sunni Adherents to the largest branch of Islam, called the orthodox or traditionalists. They believe in the effectiveness of family and community in the solution of life's problems, and they differ from the Shiites.
Shi`ite Adherents of one of the two main divisions of Islam.
Shamanism Community faith in traditional societies in which people follow thier Shaman --- a religious leader, teacher, healer, and visionary.
pilgrimage Voluntary travel by an adherent to a sacred site to pay respects or participate in a ritual at the site.
sacred sites place or space people infuse with religious meaning.
minarets tower attached to a Muslim mosque, having one or more projecting balconies from which a crier calls Muslims to prayer.
hajj the Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca, the birthplace of Muhammad
interfaith boundaries bounderies between the world's major faiths.
intrafaith boundaries boundaries within a single major faith
genocide The systematic killing or extermination of an entire people or nation.
activity space the space within which daily activity occurs.
religious fundamentalism Religious movement whose objectives are to return to the foundations of the faith and to influence state policy.
religious extremism Religious fundamentalism carried to the point of violence.
shari`a laws The system of Islamic law, sometime called Qu`rannic law. Unlike most Western systems, of law that are based on legal precedence, Sharia is based on varying degrees of interpretation of the Qu`ran.
jihad a doctrine within Islam. Commonly translated as "Holy War," Jihad represents either a personal or collective struggle on the part of Muslims to live up to the religious standards set by the Qu`ran.
Created by: DH_love on 2007-12-27



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