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Chapter 1 Human Body

Structure & Function

Anatomy Study of the structure of an organism & the relationship of its parts; done by dissection
Physiology Study of the functions of living organisms & their parts
Pathology scientific study of disease; uses principles of anatomy and physiology to determine nature of diseases
cells smallest living units of structure and function in the body
tissues organization of many cells that act together to perform a common function
organs group of several different kinds of tissues arranged so they can act together as a unit to perform a special function
Systems organization of varying number and kinds of organs arranged so that they can together perform complex functions of the body
supine position body is lying face upward
prone position body is lying face downward
superior (S) toward the head; upper; above
inferior (I) toward the feet; lower; below
anterior (A) front; in front of
posterior (P opposite A) back; in back of
ventral toward the belly (can use in place of anterior)
dorsal toward the back (can be used in place of posterior)
medial (M) toward the midline of the body
lateral (L opposite M) toward the side of the body or away from the midline
proximal (P opposite D) toward or nearest the trunk of the body or nearest the point of origin of one of its parts
distal (D) away from or farthest from the trunk or the point of origin of a body part
superficial nearer the surface
deep farther away from the body surface
R right
L left
sagittal lengthwise plane running from front dividing body into L and R parts
frontal/coronal lengthwise plane running side-to-side; divides body into anterior and posterior parts
transverse/horizontal divides body into upper and lower portions
dorsal cavity 1) cranial cavity/brain 2) spinal cavity/spinal cord
axial body portion head, neck, torso/trunk
appendicular body portion upper and lower extremities
atrophy degenerative process resulting from disuse
homeostasis relative constancy of the internal environment
feedback loop a highly complex and integrated communication control system classified as negative or positive
negative feedback loops opposes or negates change in a controlled condition to cause a return to normal
positive feedback loops stimulatory; temporarily amplify or reinforce change that is occurring. Rate increases until something causes it to stop
sensor detector of changes in feedback loop
Created by: kaad42