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PHIL102 Final

Dr. Audrey Anton's Good and the Beautiful final

Clive Bell's Formalism 1.Has Aesthetic Value (if and only if it has significant form)
significant form Must provoke aesthetic emotions in viewers
Clive Bell & "descriptive painting" They leave untouched our aesthetic emotions because it is not their forms but the ideas or information suggested or conveyed by their form that affect us.
R. Collingwood "expression of emotion" In "The Principles of Art" Collingwood held that works of art are essentially expressions of emotion.
Collingwood "What makes art art (art proper)?" Art proper is essentially an expression of emotions, with artists serving to fulfill that function. Art proper is therefore not craft because their characteristics are different.
Collingwood's 6 characteristics of craft 1.involves actions that are means and those that are ends 2.distinction between planning and execution 3.end result is pre-emptive 4.Difference b/w ready made material and the finished product 5.matter identical in both 6.three hierarchies in craft
Collingwood "magic art" Collingwood also refers to this “higher” type of art as “magical art” because magic is meant to have a practical function in every day affairs as well.
Collingwood "amusement art" In amusement art, a “make-believe” situation is created in which the emotional discharge can take place without affecting practical life.
Magic art vs. amusement Both evoke emotions through representation, but the element of make-believe is what distinguishes amusement from magical art. It's amusement if the antagonist in a play is meant to be loathed because the audience’s hatred is confined to the character whom
open concept one for which the connotation cannot be precisely specified; rather, we recognize members of the class by their resemblance to paradigms of the concept
closed concept one for which it is possible to precisely specify the connotation. Square has two membership conditions: equilaterality and rectangularity. For something to be in the denotation of “square,” must satisfy both conditions = closed
Weitz on the definition of art the very expansive, adventurous character of art, its ever-present changes and novel creations, makes it logically impossible to ensure any set of defining properties
Alfred Lessing on forgery he does see an artistic problem with forgeries: they lack the artistic novelty and achievement not of one particular work of art but of the totality of artistic productions of one [artist] or even one school
Dickie's Institutional Definition of art A work of art in the classificatory sense is (1) an artifact (2) a set of the aspects of which has had conferred upon it the status of candidate for appreciation by some person or persons acting on behalf of a certain social institution (the artworld)
Why the Institutional Definition of art is categorical Dickie uses “art” as a categorical term that does not denote any kind of value, but rather is a mere classification. This classification is bestowed upon the object by members of the art world based on their experiencing the qualities of the thing
Arthur Danto theory of art as the development of an object to which a theory of art is applied
Outsider Art describe art created outside the boundaries of official culture; Dubuffet focused particularly on art by those on the outsides of the established art scene such as insane-asylum inmates and children
Why a metaphysics of morals? Moral principles must be based on concepts of reason, as opposed to particularities. The goal of the Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals is to develop a clearer understanding of moral principles, so that people may better avert distractions
Kant Evil Act Kant's philosophy is that he does not consider an evil person evil based on the actual evil act that the person committed, rather, Kant looks deeper to the inclination, or maxim that was driving the act. Thus we have Kant's Categorical Imperative
Kant Heteronomous Wills Heteronomous wills, on the other hand, are governed by some external force or authority—that is, by something other than a self-given law of reason
Kant on Lying Kant asserted that lying, or deception of any kind, would be forbidden under any interpretation and in any circumstance. If it is universally acceptable to lie, then no one would believe anyone and all truths would be assumed to be lies.
Kant on Suicide Kant argues that choosing to commit suicide entails considering oneself as a means to an end, which he rejects: a person, he says, must not be used "...merely as means, but must in all actions always be considered as an end in himself."
Bentham consequentialsim normative ethical theories holding that the consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness of that conduct
Bentham-Egoism a consequentialist theory according to which the consequences for the individual agent are taken to matter more than any other result. Thus, egoism will prescribe actions that may be beneficial, detrimental, or neutral to the welfare of others
Bentham-Hedonism Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain, and pleasure. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do”
Bentham-Act Utilitarianism a utilitarian theory of ethics which states that a person's act is morally right if and only if it produces at least as much happiness as any other act that the person could perform at that time
Bentham-Rule Utilitarianism the morally right action is the one that is in accordance with a moral rule whose general observance would create the most happiness. Rule utilitarianism is sometimes thought to avoid the problems associated with act utilitarianism
Bentham-Eudaimonism Eudaimonism holds that what is intrinsically good for individuals is happiness, where this is understood as not merely pleasure. Sometimes ‘well-being’ or ‘flourishing’ is used instead of ‘happiness’ to make this clear.
Bentham's Principle of Utility (1) Recognizes role of pain and pleasure in life (2) approves/disapproves of an action based on amount of pain or pleasure from consequences (3) equates good with pleasure and evil with pain (4) pleasure and pain are capable of quantification
Bentham's Moral Calculus Bentham's term for how one should compare alternative courses of actions based on a numerical value assigned to each representative of the number of "utiles" each alternative would generate.
Bentham " an action conforming to the principle of utility is right or at least not wrong; it ought to be done, or at least it is not the case that it ought not be done" an action conforming to the principle of utility is right or at least not wrong; it ought to be done, or at least it is not the case that it ought not be done
1ST alternative to the principle of utility and why each fails according to Bentham By being constantly opposed to it: this is the case with a principle which may be termed the principle of asceticism.” The principle of utility-pursued consistently. The principle of asceticism cannot. To follow this rule consistently, one would die
2ND alternative to the principle of utility and why each fails according to Bentham “By being sometimes opposed to it, and sometimes not (the principle of sympathy and antipathy)” Bentham-a negation of a principle. Principles ground and justify our judgments. This principle says our judgments are good if they are what they are.
Bentham difference between a motive or a cause  A motive or cause is that which in fact produces the type of behavior a utilitarian then evaluates (in retrospect). The motive is what made the act happen.
7 features of a moral calculus 1.Intensity—how strong 2.Duration—how long 3.Certainty or Uncertainty—risk involved 4.Propinquity or Remoteness—when in time gratification can be expected 5.fecundity 6.purity 7.extent
pushpins and poetry There is no difference in kind of pleasure for Bentham. So, if pushpins (or, in our case, video games) produces as much pleasure as does poetry (or, in our case, philosophy), it makes no difference which one in which we choose to indulge.
Nozick critique of Bentham Utilitarian theory is embarrassed by the possibility of utility monsters who get greater sums of utility from any sacrifice of others than these others lose-it seems to require that we all be sacrificed in the monster's maw to increase total utility
Moore-why pleasure is not identical to goodness Moore said, the judgement “Pleasure is good” would be equivalent to “Pleasure is pleasure,” yet surely someone who asserts the former means to express more than that uninformative tautology
Moore-definition of goodness The property of 'goodness' cannot be defined. It can only be shown and grasped. Any attempt to define it (X is good if it has property Y) will simply shift the problem (Why is Y-ness good in the first place?)
Mill-differences between pleasures Higher pleasures of the mind are better than lower pleasures of the body. This establishes the moral worth of promoting higher pleasures among sentient beings even when their momentary intensity may be less than that of alternative lower pleasures.
Why Mill says there is a difference in quality of pleasures. What does this do to Bentham's moral calculus? Mill equates pleasure with happiness. He objects because you can't be a hedonist and utilitarian, God probably desires the happiness of his own creatures, it takes too long to calculate, and there is no proof.
How can we tell which pleasure is better? Having higher faculties (like reason) means you are pleased and pained by more…but you naturally like this because of the dignity it brings.
Kirkegaard Three Stages of Life (1)Aesthetic, (2)Ethical, (3)Religious
Nietzsche origin of the word "good" The etymological origin of the word "good," according to Nietzsche, reveals that it once meant "privileged," "aristocratic," "with a soul of high order," etc., and that "bad" originally meant "common," "low," and "plebeian."
What is the difference between good/bad and good/evil? Good and bad were developed by the masters to distinguish themselves from the slaves. Slaves' hatred and jealousy of the masters resulted in the development of the word evil. With evil meaning damnable and good meaning common.
What is the master and slave morality? Master morality weighs actions on a scale of good or bad consequences unlike slave morality which weighs actions on a scale of good or evil intentions. For Nietzsche, a particular morality is inseparable from the formation of a particular culture.
What is the significance of resentment? jealousy of the weak seeking to enslave the strong with itself. Nietzsche saw democracy and Christianity as the same emasculating impulse which sought to make all equal—to make all slaves.
What is the slave revolt? How is it responsible for mediocrity? Socialism, democracy, and anarchism: there are no superior individuals. Which represent the rule of the herd (mediocratity) and the start of the slave revolt of morality
What is problematic about Triumph of the Will? What makes Triumph of the Will problematic and disturbing is its artistic vision: it's vision of the German people, leader, and empire. In order to view it in the way intended, one has to moved and swayed by the beauty.
In what way is it the case that such a documentary of history is also part of the history? In what ways are art and history related in such cases? The reality the film records is the reality it helped to create. Therefore, the movie is too involved in changing the course of history to merely be recording the present
Faked Reality (Siegfried Kracauer) making something *like* reality, but significantly different from it, by distorting presentation of the truth while still using real bits of truth (actual images of real events distorted in a lot of ways).
What is the significance/ relation to this piece and theories of imitation such as Plato’s view of ontological value (the worth of a type of being) and the mimetic theory of art? It encourages viewers to make a jump from beautiful to good. It can destroy the moral perception of viewers (Aristotle), it can destroy the character of viewers (Plato), it can cause viewers to go and do bad acts (Bentham and Mill)
In what way is the moral concern Devereaux has not a consequentialist concern? oIt reveals something already bad about your character? oEnjoying bad things is bad, regardless of your character? oEnjoying bad things has bad effects on our moral sensibilities?
Formalism separate aesthetic and moral considerations and evaluate the art solely on its aesthetic merits
Sophisticated Formalism includes the content of art for evaluation in the following way—what determines aesthetic quality is the formal elements and, in particular, how these express the content/their relation to the content.
What is the relationship between goodness and beauty according to Devereaux? that beauty and goodness can come apart, not just in the relatively simple sense that moral and aesthetic evaluation may diverge, but in the more frightening sense that it is possible for art to render evil beautiful. It can distort our emotional values
Should we watch this movie? Why or why not? It can be admired for 1. Its formal beauty and 2. Its expressive power. • It can help us prevent future fascist regimes by knowing how it starts. It has historical value. It shows us how beauty and evil can be conjoined.
Why does Devereaux deny autonomism? • The vision is essential to the aesthetic value of the film. • The vision is flawed in several ways (it is not a true and accurate representation because it presents evil things as good, and it endorses evil things—two different, though related problems
Justificatory Reasons A consideration that validates actions and choices as normatively correct.
Explanatory Reasons A consideration that stands as evidence of how something is or why something happened the way that it did and this consideration validates a belief in the state of affairs that it signifies.
moral worth Kant's term for actions that are morally right and done from a motive of respect for duty (i.e. for the sake of duty and nothing else).
perfect duties Perfect duties are those that Kant says must always be obeyed without any liberty as to how much to obey them. These are often expressed negatively
imperfect duties Kant's term for the duties we should try to fulfill but may fulfill as much or as little as we are able and on certain occasions. If these conflict with perfect duties, we are required to fulfill the perfect duty.
Hypothetical Imperative The rule that says, if you want X, then you ought to do Y.
Categorical Imperitive Kant's name for the moral law that commands everyone always without exception.
Consequentialism The ethical stance that judges the goodness or rightness of actions solely on the value of the consequences that an action brings.
Teleology Any study, theory, or discipline that focuses on an ultimate end or goal as the main point of the discipline or task. In philosophy, this end or goal is often wisdom, virtue, or happiness.
Eudaimonism The greek term for flourishing, excellence, and happiness. A theory is eudaimonistic if it focuses on achieving eudaimonia.
Egoism The moral theory that holds that the right thing to do is whatever is the best thing for the agent.
Hedonism The view that the only intrinsically good thing is pleasure.
Utilitarianism Consequentialist moral theory that holds that what makes an action right is that it yields the best consequences in terms of units of pleasure and happiness for the greatest number of people.
Act utilitarianism prescribes that on every occassion we do the act that yields the best possible consequences for the greatest number of people of the actions available.
Rule Utilitarianism prescribes that we follow whichever set of rules the following of which yields the best consequences overall (not necessarily on one occassion).
Moral Calculus Bentham's term for how one should compare alternative courses of actions based on a numerical value assigned to each representative of the number of "utiles" each alternative would generate.
Motivational Internalism a theory that holds that believing something is good is sufficient for being motivated towards its production or preservation.
Motivational Externalism it is psychologically possible and consistent to believe something is good and be unmotivated by it or believe something to be bad yet still be motivated by it. Factual judgment is not directly related to motivation.
Supererogatory Actions are supererogatory when they exceed moral requirements--they go "above and beyond" the call of duty.
Ethics The study or right and wrong, good and bad, etc.
Aesthetics The study of what constitutes art and beauty.
Epistemology The study of knowledge and how we come to have it, if it is even possible to have it.
Metaphysics The study of reality beyond nature or physics. The study of aspects of reality that cannot be demonstrated empirically.
Metaethis the study of the origin and meaning of ethical concepts.
Normative Ethics theories that aim to arrive at general moral standards that regulate right and wrong conduct.
Applied Ethics The dimension of ethics that deals with specific cases and disciplines and often includes controversial cases, the debate of which reveals human ethical intuitions.
Formalist One who thinks that the content of a work of art is not relevant to its aesthetic value.
Autonomism the view that aesthetic value is isolated from moral value and that it is incorrect to think of them as related.
Moralism the view that the ethical value and the aesthetic value of something like a work of art affect one another.
Platonism the view that all art is bad because are misrepresents reality and aims at emotions, which should never alone guide human behavior.
Utopianism The view that all art has some moral message, therefore all art is good (since a moral message is a kind of moral education, which is always good).
Clarificationism some fictional narrative art can deepen moral understanding if it is properly engaged with. helps to cultivate our moral responses and clarify the content of our moral categories and principles
Anxious Objects Art that a contemporary artists creates to challenge her predecessor's (perceived or implicit) definition of art.
Readymades Any common object that is presented as art. The artist "creates" the art by identifying the object and considering it art. The artist (usually) did not produce the physical object that constitutes their art.
Created by: taylorann93