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Grade 7


Rocks Made of minerals. Usually identified by how they look. 3 main types: -igneous -sedimentary -metamorphic
Igneous Rocks Melted rocks, that cool and crystallize Formed inside or above earth
Sedimentary Rocks Made when loose rocks become stuck together Happens by compaction and cementation
Metamorphic Rocks Made when Igneous and Sedimentary rocks deep inside earth, are heated and under pressure for a long period of time.
Compaction Sediments are pressed together for a long period of time
Cementation Water dissolves crystals, making a glue. Some rocks will stick together forming a new rock.
Minerals Elements and compounds that are made naturally Made up of crystals
6 ways to identify minerals 1. Moh's hardness scale 2. Crystals 3. Luster 4. Colour 5. Streak 6. Cleavage/Fracture
Moh's Hardness Scale To test how hard the rock or mineral is, from softest to hardest.
Crystal Straight edges, flat sides, and regular angles.
Luster "Shininess" How light reflects from it
Streak The color that is made when the mineral is scraped or crushed
Cleavage The way a mineral breaks apart. It breaks with straight, flat edges.
Fracture Another way a mineral breaks apart. It breaks with rough, jagged edges.
Erosion Movement of rocks and minerals from one place to another. Usually caused by gravity, wind, and movement of water and ice. 3 types: Chemical Biological Mechanical
Chemical weathering Rock is changed by chemical reactions Rock is weakened by coming into contact with pollution (water, air or acids)
Mechanical weathering Wearing away and physical breakdown of rocks Due to gravity causing rocks to fall and break, and/or water rubbing particles of rock away Caused by wind, water, gravity, and temperature change
Biological weathering Rock is changed by plants or animals living in or on it.
Created by: Holytrinity7