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Second Exam

Justificatory Reasons A consideration that validates actions and choices as normatively correct
Explanatory Reasons A consideration that stands as evidence of how something is or why something happened the way that it did and this consideration validates a belief in the state of affairs that it signifies
Moral Worth Kant's term for actions that are morally right and done from a motive of respect for duty (i.e. for the sake of duty and nothing else)
Perfect Duties Duties that must always be obeyed without any liberty as to how much to obey them. These are often expressed negatively (Kant)
Imperfect Duties Duties we should try to fulfill but may fulfill as much or as little as we are able and on certain occasions. If these conflict with perfect duties, we are required to fulfill the perfect duty (Kant)
Hypothetical Imperative The rule that says, if you want X, than you ought to do Y
Categorical Imperative Kant's name for the moral law that commands everyone always without exception
Consequentialism The ethical stance that judges the goodness or rightness of actions solely on the value of the consequences that an action brings
Teology/Teological Any study, theory, or discipline that focuses on an ultimate end or goal as the main point of the discipline task (in philosophy, this end or goal is often wisdom, virtue, or happiness)
Eudaimonism Greek term for flourishing, excellence, and happiness (A theory of eudaimonistic if it focuses on achieving eudaimonia)
Ethical Egoism The moral theory that holds that the right thing to do is whatever is best thing for the agent
Psychological Egoism Self-oriented interests ultimately motivate all human action
Hedonism The view that the only intrinsically good thing is pleasure
Utilitarianism Consequentialist moral theory that holds that what makes an action right is that yields the best consequences in terms of units of pleasure and happiness for the greatest number of people
Act Utilitarianism Prescribes that on every occasion we do the act that yields the best possible consequences for the greatest number of people of the actions available
Rule Utilitarianism Prescribes that we follow whichever set of rules the following of which yields the best consequences overall (not necessarily on one occasion)
Moral Calculus Bentham's term for how one should compare alternative courses of actions based on a numerical value assigned to each representative of the number of "utiles" each alternative would generate
Motivational Internalism A theory that holds that believing something is good is sufficient for being motivated towards it production or preservation
Strong Motivational Internalism Whenever one acts, one was motivated by what one thought was best
Weak Motivational Internalism Thinking something is good is sufficient to be inclined towards its production or preservation, but it is not sufficient for such motivation to be chosen/cause the action
Motivational Externalism It is psychologically possible and consistent to believe something is good and be unmotivated by it or believe something to be bad yet still be motivated by it. Factual judgement is not directly related to motivation
Supererogatory Actions are supererogatory when they exceed moral requirements-they go "above and beyond" the call of duty
Ethics The study or right and wrong, good and bad, etc.
Aesthetics The study of what constitutes art and beauty
Epistemology The study of knowledge and how we come to have it, if it is even possible to have it
Metaphysics The study of reality beyond nature or physics. The study of aspects of reality that cannot be demonstrated empirically
Metaethics The study of the origin and meaning of ethical concepts
Normative Ethics Theories that aim to arrive at general moral standards that regulate right and wrong conduct
Applied Ethics The dimension of ethics that deals with specific cases and disciplines and often includes controversial cases, the debate of which reveals human ethical intuitions
Formalist One who thinks that the content of a work of art is not relevant to its aesthetic value
Autonomism The view that aesthetic value is isolated from moral value and that is incorrect to think of them as related
Moralism The view that the ethical value and the aesthetic value of something like a work of art affect another
Platonism (about art) The view that all art is bad because are misrepresents reality and aims at emotions, which should never alone guide human behavior
Utopianism (about art) The view that all art has some moral message, therefore all art is good (since moral message is a kind of moral education, which is always good)
Clarificationism The view that some fictional narrative art can deepen moral understanding it it is properly engaged with such proper engagement helps to cultivate our moral responses and clarify the content of our moral categories and principles
Anxious Objects to challenge her predecessor's (perceived or implicit) definition of art
Readymades Any common object that is presented as art. The artist "creates" the art by identifying the object and considering it art. The artist (usually) did not produce the physical object that constitutes their art
Institutional Definition of Art the view that a work of art is an artifact which has had conferred upon it the status of candidate for appreciation by the artworld.
Created by: ebobbitt29