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earthquakes the shaking that results from the movement of rock below the Earth's surface
crust The layer of rock that forms Earth's outer surface
fault a break or crack in Earth's lithosphere along which the rocks move
mantle the layer of hot, solid material between Earth's crust and core
lithosphere a rigid layer made up of the uppermost part of the mantle and crust
seismologists: scientists who measure and study earthquakes
lithospheric plates large pieces of the lithosphere that are always moving
P waves Seismic waves that compress and expand the ground like an accordion
S waves Seismic waves that vibrate from side to side as well as up and down
Seismic waves Vibrations that carry an earthquake's energy through the earth
Surface waves Waves that move more slowly than P waves and S waves; they can produce severe ground movements
Seismograph An instrument that records and measures seismic waves
Focus The point where the rock breaks and triggers an earthquake
Epicenter The point on the surface directly above the focus
magnitude The number that is based on the earthquake's strength
Richter scale It measures an earthquake's magnitude
Mercalli scale It rates an earthquake's damage at a certain place
moment magnitude scale It rates and estimates the energy released from an earthquake
liquifaction The process where the earth's shaking turns loose, soft soil into liquid mud
aftershock An earthquake that happens after a large earthquake in the same area
tsunami Large ocean waves caused by underwater earthquakes
base isolated building A building mounted on foundation designed to absorb the energy of an earthquake
Tension Stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle
Compression Stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks
Shearing Stress that pushes masses of rock in opposite directions, in a sideways movement
Strike-slip fault A type of fault where rocks on either side move past each other sideways with little up-or-down motion
Reverse fault A type of fault where the hanging wall slides upward; caused by compression in the crust
Normal fault A type of fault where the hanging wall slides downwards; caused by tension in the crust
Plateau A landform that has high elevation and a more of less level surface
Created by: lchoi