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# Chapter 2 Test

### Science - Matter

physical change changes in appearance (phase change/dissolving)
chemical change a new product is formed ex: baking a cake, rusting metal, toasting a marshmallow
law of conservation of mass The principle stating that matter is not created or destroyed during a chemical reaction
temperature a measure of the average energy of motion of the particles of a substance
solid state of matter that has a definite shape; definite volume; does not take the shape of the container
plasma no definite shape; no definite volume;
liquid no definite shape; definite volume; takes the shape of the container
gas no definite shape; no definite volume; takes the shape of the container
plasma no definite shape; no definite volume;
melting point point at which a solid becomes a liquid (water = 0 degrees Celcius)
freezing point point at which a liquid becomes a solid (water = 0 degrees Celcius)
boiling point point at which a liquid becomes a gas (water = 100 degrees Celcius)
vaporization going from a liquid to a gas. There are 2 types of vaporization 1)boiling and 2)evaporation
sublimation the direct change from being a solid to a gas....it skips being a liquid
evaporation Going from a liquid to a gas (only at the surface)
Boyle's law The pressure of a gas varies inversely with its volume at constant temperature
Charles' Law The volume of a gas is directly proportional to its temperature under constant pressure
pressure As gas particles move, they bump into the sides of their container. The pressure of gas is the strength of its push on the walls of the container.
viscosity Measure of how much a liquid resists flow (remember viscosity races - ketchup)
Crowded Dance floor - expansion of particles imagine a bunch of people on a crowded dance floor....as they start moving, they begin to spill over onto the dance floor. As heated particles bump and move into each other, expansion occurs.
Bunsen burner Mixes air with natural gas producing a flame, blue flame is hotter, orange candle not as hot, the energy in candle goes to producing more light, less heat.
Cunduct-o-meter which substance will melt fastest? copper, brass, aluminum, steel, nickel Substances conduct heat at different rates
Ball and ring experiment when a ball is heated it expands and it no longer fits through the ring
Bi-metal strip different metals are fused together creating a strip... when heated it bends b/c different metals expand at different rates
balloon expansion a balloon expands when heated in the microwave when heated, particles move quicker, therefore expanding
powerlines why are they created with the lines loose? powerlines expand and contract with summer heat and winter weather
bridges bridges expand and contract with summer heat and winter weather therefore on one side of rolling bridges is in cement, the other is on rollers to allow for expansion and contraction
sidewalks cracks allow cement to expand and contract
rail lines rail lines are created in 20 feet sections to allow for expansion and contraction
made own thermometer liquid water contracted with cold temps and expanded with warmer temps (red)
can boiling points vary? Higher altitudes result in lower boiling points
2 types of vaporization going from a liquid to a gas is called vaporizations....there are 2 forms: 1. evaporation - particles at the surface to escape into the air 2. boiling - particles above and below surface escape into the air
expansion particles spread out due to heat (gets bigger)
contraction particles get closer together due to cold temps (gets smaller)
Created by: msariano