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Syzygy occurs during __________. spring tides
Which of the following statements about the positions of the Earth–Moon–Sun system during a solar eclipse is FALSE? Neap tide conditions are experienced.
Resultant tidal forces are produced by __________. the difference between centripetal and gravitational forces
The reason that a lunar day is _________ a solar day is that __________________. longer than; the Moon is also moving in its orbit around Earth
A high tide is at 3:00 p.m. on a particular day. On the very next day, a high tide would most likely be expected at __________. 3:50 p.m.
Of the following phases of the Moon, which one is associated with the smallest tidal range? quarter moon
Destructive interference between the solar and lunar tidal bulges occurs during __________. neap tide
The gravitational force between two bodies is dependent on mass and distance, with distance being the greater influence of the two. True
In a simple model of the tides as tidal bulges, the strongest gravitational influence = maximum seawater bulge = highest tide. True
The best time to go collecting at a tide pool (when there would be the lowest low tides) is during neap tide conditions. False
The greatest tidal range on Earth occurs during the times when the Moon is at ___________ and the Sun is at ___________. perigee; perihelion
A tidal pattern with two nearly equal high tides and two nearly equal low tides per lunar day is called a __________ tidal pattern. Semidiurnal
A tidal pattern with one high tide and one low tide per lunar day is called a __________ tidal pattern. Diurnal
What tidal pattern occurs along the West Coast of the United States? Mixed
Under ideal conditions for the West Coast of the United States, the time interval between a high tide and the very next high tide would be __________. 12 hours, 25 minutes
What would tides be like on Earth if the Moon did not exist? Tides would occur, but the tidal range would be reduced.
In the open ocean, tidal currents follow which of the following patterns? Rotary
Water that is flowing out of a bay as a result of a change in the tides is called __________. an ebb current
What is a tidal bore? a true tidal wave caused by an incoming high tide that moves up certain rivers
Which of the following statements about tidal power plants is FALSE? There are no existing tidal power plants anywhere in the world.
In general, the sand on most beaches comes from _________. Rivers
Of the following zones, which one is defined as the portion of the shore that extends from the low-tide shoreline to the low-tide breaker line? Nearshore
In a typical coastal region, the berm is _________. a dry, nearly level or gently sloping platform
Normally, beaches would have the greatest amount of sand on the berm near the end of _________. Summer
During periods of very heavy wave activity, _________. the berm shrinks, and the longshore bar grows
Which of the following features are associated with erosional shores? sea cliffs and sea stacks
All of the following features are associated with emerging shorelines EXCEPT _________. drowned beaches
Submerging shorelines commonly exhibit _________. drowned river valleys
The movement of sand parallel to the shoreline _________. is all the above (all the responses are true)
Along the U.S. West Coast, longshore transport generally moves ________, and along the U.S. East Coast, longshore transport generally moves ________. south, south
Imagine that you are caught in a rip current in the ocean. What is the best thing to do to avoid drowning? Swim sideways to the current before attempting to come ashore.
All of the following are alternatives to hard stabilization EXCEPT _________. increasing the rate of glacial ice cap melting so that there is a rise in eustatic sea level
Beach nourishment is the establishment of coastal structures that prevent the movement of sand downcoast. False
Where does most of the sand involved in longshore transport in beach compartments eventually end up? down submarine canyons
With rising sea level, barrier islands tend to _________. migrate landward
All of the following events can produce a global (eustatic) rise in sea level EXCEPT _________. isostatic rebound of the land following glacial melting
Which U.S. coast would most likely experience the LEAST amount of shoreline retreat related to a 1-meter rise in sea level? West Coast
Which of the following human-made structures or natural features does NOT interfere with the natural flow of sand on the beach? Spits
Which longshore drift management technique was implemented at Santa Monica, California, before the breakwater was destroyed? Sand was dredged from behind (inshore of) the breakwater.
The type of hard stabilization that protects a harbor or bay entrance and is almost always found in pairs is called a _________. Jetty
The Law of the Sea Treaty provides for all of the following EXCEPT ___________. the right of any nation to dump plastic trash at sea
Runoff flowing into coastal waters can produce all of the following EXCEPT ___________. dry offshore winds
Which of the following is an example of a coastal plain estuary? Chesapeake Bay
A fjord is a type of estuary that was created by ___________. submergence of a glacially carved valley.
Of the following types of estuaries, which one has the best developed "estuarine circulation pattern"? a highly stratified estuary
Which of the following statements about Mediterranean Intermediate Water is FALSE? It is composed of low-salinity water.
Which of the following statements about coastal wetlands is FALSE? Coastal wetlands have very low productivities.
Mangroves grow in latitudes as high as 65 degrees north or south of the equator. False
By law, storm drains now divert flow into treatment facilities, not to the ocean as they once did. False
Toxins often accumulate and concentrate from organism to organism up marine food chains. True
Although the effects of DDT on the environment were devastating, they have long since disappeared. False
It is still legal to dump raw sewage into the ocean in the United States. False
Non-point source pollution includes large oil spills caused by ocean tankers. False
Based on the World Heath Organization's definition of marine pollution, all of the following would be considered pollution (provided that the item results in harmful effects) EXCEPT ___________. "natural pollution," such as piles of dead seaweed at the beach.
The standard laboratory bioassay is used to determine ___________. the concentration of a pollutant in the water
Minamata disease is caused by eating fish contaminated with ___________. Mercury
Years after the oil spill from the Exxon Valdez, ecologic recovery has largely taken place because ___________. most substances that comprise oil are naturally biodegradable
Bioremediation ___________. is a method of oil cleanup that uses microbes to break down oil
Other than the oil spilled intentionally by the Iraqi army during their invasion of Kuwait in 1991, the world's largest oil spill was from ___________. the blowout of the Ixtoc #1 oil well in the Bay of Campeche, Mexico (1979)
What is the source of the majority of human-caused marine oil pollution? consumers who use oil
Based on a working definition of life, which of the following is NOT a characteristic of living organisms? Living organisms must be large enough to be seen with the naked eye.
Which of the following kingdoms of organisms lack nuclei? Monera
Of the following groupings, which one is the most inclusive (contains the greatest number of species)? Phylum
What is the total number of marine species that have been catalogued? 250,000
Only 14% of Earth's species live in the ocean. Which is the most logical explanation of why there are so few marine species? The relatively uniform conditions of the open ocean create an easier life for marine organisms than terrestrial organisms.
What percentage of marine species live in or on the ocean floor? 98%
Which type of marine organism comprises the greatest percentage of marine biomass? Plankton
All of the following adult-stage organisms are considered nektonic organisms EXCEPT ___________. Jellyfish
All of the following adult-stage organisms are considered benthos EXCEPT ___________. Jellyfish
Organisms that are plankton in their juvenile stage but become nekton or benthos in their adult stage are called ___________. Meroplankton
Osmosis is a process that describes the movement of water molecules from the less concentrated solution into the more concentrated solution. True
Diffusion is a process that involves passing particles or molecules from areas of low particle concentration to areas of high particle concentration. False
Countershading is a term used to describe an organism that is dark colored on bottom and light colored on top, thus able to avoid being seen by predators. False
The deep scattering layer (DSL) is found close to the surface at noon every day. False
The increasing pressure with depth in the oceans has a significant impact on most marine organisms. False
Organisms that can tolerate only a narrow range of salinity conditions are said to be ___________. Stenohaline
The oxygen minimum layer (OML) ___________. is a zone of low dissolved oxygen concentration
Because of seawater's high salinity, most marine fish have the following adaptations EXCEPT that ___________. they are considered hypertonic
Dead and decaying organic matter, including waste products, is called ___________. detritus
Which of the following shows the correct order of benthic environments, going from shallow water to deep ocean depths? littoral, sublittoral, bathyal, abyssal, hadal
What is the total estimate economic contribution that he Indian River Lagoon provides to the local, regional and national economies? $ 750M
Heavy concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus can fuel algal blooms in the lagoon. Which of the following are not contributors to nitrogen levels? Coriolis affect
Which of these are not primary controllers of the level of chlorophyl A in the IRL? salinity
Evaluation of seagrass resources in the lagoon is based on three measurements, which measurement is not used? Satellite chlorophyl A analysis.
What scale do marine scientist use to measure the color in natural bodies of water like the IRL? Platinum cobalt units
What scale do marine scientist use to measure the turbidity color in natural bodies of water like the IRL? Nephelometric turbidity units (NTUs).
Unnaturally high levels of Chlorophyll a in the IRL are generally considered a sign of which of the following? Too much nutrient
The convergence of tropical and temperate climatic zones make the Indian River Lagoon North America’s number one estuary with the highest species diversity. True
Recent CCMP implementation achievements did not include which of the following? The establishment of largest nationwide all volunteer exotic species trapping program.
. What fish commonly found in the IRL caused 19 cases of poisoning in less than a six month period? Puffer Fish
The above fish poisoning cases were found to be caused by what specific agent? Planktonic Algae
Which of the following non-indigenous species have not been found in or near the IRL? Blue Ring Octopus (genus Hapalochlaena)
What is considered to be the optimal salinity for sea grass growth in the IRL? 20 ppt
If you had a question about whether a specific species of marine animal or plant could be found or not in the IRL you could go to which of the following web sites? Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce at www.serc.si.edu/sms/irlspec/index.htm
Which of the following bodies are not considered part of the IRL? Myakka River
Areas adjacent to larger tributaries and major drainage do not experience higher than typical levels of ? salinity
The Indian River Lagoon features what type of water body? Estuary
Created by: motherduck