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Science Chapter 1..


What are the characteristics of living things? They are composed of cells, respond to there environment, reproduce, grow, repair themselves, have a lifespan, require energy/food and produce waste.
What is the cell theory? That all living things are composed of cells and that new cells arise from existing cells.
Parts of an Animal cell. Nucleus, Chromosomes, Cell Membrane, Cytoplasm, Vacuole.
Two different types of cells. Cilia and Flagellum.
Three things a Plant cell has that an Animal cell does not. Cell wall and Chloroplasts/Chlorophyll.
What does the Vacuole do? (Plant) The vacuole is filled with water and nutrients, but takes up a larger space, the vacuole also stores waste that is produced or absorbed.
What does the Vacuole do? (Animal) A vacuole stores water and nutrients, such as sugar and minerals, it also stores and moves waste and excess water out of the cell.
What does the Nucleus do? The control center, it directs all of the cell's activity. The nucleus is surrounded by the membrane.
Prokaryotic cells. The nucleus is not surrounded by the membrane.
Eukaryotic cells. Cell's with a nuclear membrane.
What do the Chromosomes do? The chromosomes contain the genetic information.
What does the Cell membrane do? The cell membrane holds the contents of the cell in place. The cell membrane acts like a gate keeper, controlling the movement of materials, such as nutrients into and out of the cell. It consists of a double layer of fat molecules.
What does the Cytoplasm do? The cytoplasm is a watery fluid that contains everything inside the cell membrane and outside the nucleus. Many chemical activity's occur in this area Stores waste until disposed of.
What does the Cell wall do? (Plant) The cell wall protects and supports plant cell. Gases, water, and some minerals can pall through small pores.
What do the Chloroplasts do? They are food factories. They contain many green molecules called chlorophyll that allow them to make there own food form the sun, called Photosynthesis.(Carbon Dioxide,Water,Sunlight)
Transmission Electron Microscope. Capable of 2000000x power. Use a beam of electrons that pass through the specimen or tissue. Cant contain many layers of cells ex blood vessels and cells have to be dead to be viewed.
Scanning Electron. Allows digital 3D images to be created. Only the outside of the specimen can be viewed. Cant magnify as much as transmission electron microscope.
What are Organelles? They are tiny structures within the cytoplasm.
What are Mitochondria? Power plant. Circular or rod shaped. Provide cells with energy.
Cellular Respiration. Mitochondria release energy combining sugar molecules with oxygen molecules to form carbon dioxide and water. This energy is used in almost every other function.
What are Ribosomes. Protein Manufacturing. They are very small organelles. They appear like fuzzy dots under any microscope. They use info from the nucleus and molecules from the cytoplasm to produce protein for cell growth, repair and reproduction.
Endoplasmic Reticulum. Material transportation. They are a series of folded membranes They carry materials through the cytoplasm.
"Rough" Endoplasmic Reticulum. They have ribosomes attached to them.
"Smooth" Endoplasmic Reticulum. They do not have ribosomes attached to them if the structure where fats (lipids) are made.
Golgi Apparatus. Protein storage. A structure that looks like a stack of flattened pancakes. Stores proteins and put them into packages called vesicles.
Vesicles. Carry protein molecules to the surface of the cell where they are released to the outside. The proteins in the vesicles very, depending on the function.
Lysosomes. Recycling. They are formed by the Golgi apparatus to patrol and clean the cytoplasm. Contain special proteins to break down larger molecules into smaller molecules. Play an important role in destroying harmful substances like bacteria that enter cell.
Turgor Pressure. When water fills the vacuoles and cytoplasm causing them to swell up and push against the cell wall. The outwards pressure is called Turgor Pressure.
Created by: 100001215553698