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Term Test 2

Bullae a group of over-inflated alveoli
ulcer a lesion through the skin or a mucous membrane
peptic ulcer a lesion caused by pepsin
duodenal ulcer a lesion in the mucosal lining of the duodenum
gastric ulcer a lesion in the mucosal lining of the stomach
esophageal ulcer a lesion in the mucosal lining of the esophagus
diverticulum a pouch or sac that develops off a tubular structure such as the intestine
diverticulitis inflammation of a pouch or sac opening off of a tubular structure
diverticulosis the presence of diverticula within the intestine
cholelithiasis the presence of stones within the gallbladder or biliary duct
neuropathy a disease of nervous tissue
myopathy a disease of muscle tissue
intravenous pyelogram a contrast x-ray showing the structures that carry urine
BUN (Blood urea nitrogen) a blood test used as an indicator of kidney function. measures the amount of urea.
creatinine clearance a measure of kidney function that compares the amount of creatinine excreted in the urine over a 24 hour period to the concentration of creatinine in the blood
cystoscopy using an endoscope to examine the urinary bladder
genes a region on DNA that contains the code for making a protein
alleles different forms of a gene
dominant an allele that is always expressed
recessive an allele that will be expressed only when the person is homozygous
genotype a two-letter code that describes which alleles a person has
homozygous having the same to alleles for a gene
heterozygous having different alleles for a gene
expressed the allele that we can see evidence of
phenotype describes what characteristics are produced as a result of having a certain genotype
chromosomes the combination of DNA and proteins found in a cell that is going through mitosis
autosomes chromosomes one through twenty two
sex chromosomes the twenty third pair of chromosomes in humans
karyotype describes the microscopic appearance of the chromosomes
diploid having the normal 23 pairs of chromosomes
aneuploid having an abnormal number of chromosomes
monosomy missing a chromosome
trisomy having an extra copy of a chromosome
hematocrit the percentage of blood volume occupied by RBC's
Mean corpuscular volume the average size of a RBC
anemias a group of disease that decreases the ability of the blood to carry oxygen
leukemias a group of disease that results in a dramatic increase in the number of leukoblasts
pollycythemia having an abnormally high number of erythrocytes
pancytopenia a decreased in the number of all normal blood cells
erythrocytopenia a decrease in the number of RBC's
leukopenia a decrease in the number of WBC's
thrombocytopenia having a low number of platelets
hemophilia a genetic decrease in the activity of one of the clotting factors
thalassemias a group of genetic anemia's resulting in a decrease in the synthesis of globin chains
intrinsic factor any form from with in the body
intrinsic factor ( pernicious anemia) a protein secreted by gastric glands that is needed for the absorption of B12
extrinsic factor any factor coming from outside the body
extrinsic factor (pernicious anemia) vitamin B12
ausculation any diagnostic procedure that listens to body sounds
echocardiography an ultrasound of the heart
stress test an electrocardiogram performed while in the heart rate is elevated
angiography a contrast x-ray showing circulation
cardiac markers proteins released from damaged cells into the blood; used as a diagnostic indicator of myocardial infarction
normal sinus rhythm having a normal heart rhythm established by the sinoatrial node
bradycardia having a resting heart rate of less that 60 beats per minute
tachycardia having a resting heart rate of greater than 100 beats per minute
valvular incompetence the inability of a valve to either open or close properly
valvular stenosis the inability of a valve to open completely
valvular prolapse when one of the AV valves swings up into the atrium when it should be closed
atherosclerosis the build up of fatty deposits with in blood vessels
arteriosclerosis hardening of the arteries
arteriostenosis narrowing of the arteries
DNA the nucleic acid that contains all of an individuals genes, in every cell
Ischemia a local decrease in blood flow due to obstruction
angina pectoris chest pains as a result of myocardial ischemia
angina pectoris chest pains as a result of myocardial ischemia
myocardial infarction ischemic necrosis of heart muscle
TIA a temporary decrease in cerebral function as a result of ischemia
cerebral infraction ischemic necrosis of the cerebrum
secondary hypertension chronic high blood pressure that is a complication of another condition
primary (essential) hypertension chronic high blood pressure of unknown origin
aneurysm localized dilation of an artery or chamber of the heart as a result of weakness in the wall
hemoptysis coughing up blood from lungs
hypoxia a lack of oxygen
hypercapnea an excess of carbon dioxide
respirator acidosis a decrease in the pH of body fluids as a result of a build-up of carbon dioxide
atelectasis a partial or complete collapse of lung tissue
pneumothorax the presence of air between the visceral pleura and the parietal pleura
Created by: emerald_327