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Atrophy A wasting of tissue that results in decreased muscle mass.
Brainstem connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord and includes the midbrain, medulla oblongata, and the pons. Motor and sensory neurons travel via the brainstem, which allows for communication between brain and spinal cord. The brainstem also controls life
Corticobulbar refers to the pathway connecting the cerebral cortex to the brainstem. Bulbar refers to the nerves and tracts connected to the medulla; muscles innervated include those of the tongue, pharynx, and larynx.
Corticospinal also referred to as the pyramidal tracts; are descending tracts, which conduct motor impulses from the brain to the spinal cord.
Demyelination destruction, removal, or loss of the myelin sheath of a nerve or nerves.
Dopamine A neurotransmitter that helps regulate movement and emotional responses; a deficiency results in Parkinson’s disease.
Electroencephalogram (ECG) the record obtained during the amplification, recording, and subsequent analysis of the electrical activity of the brain using an instrument called an electroencephalograph.
Lou Gehrig’s Disease common name for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS); fatal, progressive, degenerative motor neuron disease in which scars form on the neurons in the corticospinal pathways, the motor nuclei of the brainstem, & the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord.
Lower motor neuron injury to the ventral horn of the spinal cord results in lower motor neuron damage; sign include focal and multifocal weakness, atrophy, cramps, and muscle twitching as well as flaccid paralysis with loss of movement, tone, and reflex activity.
Neurodegenerative refers to degeneration of nervous tissue.
Substantia nigra located in the basil ganglia, this structure produces dopamine, a neurotransmitter, and transports it to the striatum.
Progressive Neurological Disorders (PND) group of diseases that affect various areas of the CNS, are chronic in nature, & cause a deterioration of function over time
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) a debilitating immunologic & neurodegenerative disease in which the person's own body attacks the myelin sheath that surrounds the brain & spinal cord neurons; characterized by chronic inflammation & diffuse demyelination the white & grey matter & axons
Dysesthesia impairment of any sense, especially the sense of touch; a painful, persistent sensation induced by a gentle touch of the skin
Optic Neuritis inflammation of the optic nerve, affecting the part of the nerve w/in the eyeball (neuropapillitis) or the part behind the eyeball (retrobulbar neuritis), usually causing pain & partial blindness in one eye
Myelin the lipid substance forming a sheath around the axons of certain nerve fibers, occurring predominantly in the cranial & spinal nerves that compose the white matter of the brain & spinal cord; myelin sheath is formed by a glial cell, either an ....
Dysarthria imperfect articulation of speech caused by disturbances of muscular control resulting from CNS or PNS damage
Benign MS person experiences 1 or 2 episodes of neurologic deficits w/no residual impairments; person's chance of remaining SX free increases w/ea. non-symptomatic year
Relapsing-Remitting-Nongrogressive MS person returns to the previous level of function after each exacerbation
Relapsing-Remitting-Progressive MS person has some residual impairment w/each remission; unpredictable w/varied patterns of exacerbation & remission
Progressive Pattern MS involves a steady decline in function w/o remissions & exacerbation
Parkinson's Disease (PD) a PND identified by depigmentation of the substantia nigra & the presence of Lewy bodies
"Pill-Rolling" hand tremor seen in PD patients
"Festinating Gait" short stepped or shuffling w/reduced arm swing seen in PD patients
fasciculation Involuntary twitching of muscles
thalamotomy surgical procedure un which heat via an electrode or gamma-knife radio surgery is used to destroy part of the thalamus
pallidotomy surgical procedure un which heat via an electrode or gamma-knife radio surgery is used to destroy part of the globes pallidus
deep brain stimulation (neurostimulation) the implantation of a type of "brain pacemaker" that delivers electrical impulses to the subthalamic nucleus, the internal globes pallid us, or the thalamus to reduce tremors associated with PD
Created by: Cindy Lou Who