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define: bone dynamic and complex, living tissue
what are the 6 functions of the skeletal system? 1. support 2. protection 3.motion 4.mineral homeostasis 5.blood cell circulation 6.triglyceride storage
describe diaphysis the long shaft of a long bone
describe epiphysis the ends of a long bone
describe metaphysis union of diaphysis and epiphysis
periosteum: where is it and whats its function wraps around the bone, nutrition and protection
(bone histology) what elements are found in the bone matrix and how much? water, collagen (25%), hydroxyapatite, mineral salts (50%)
what gives bone its hardness? mineral salts
what gives bone its flexibility? collagen
osteoblast: what is it and what does it do bone cell, build up bone
osteoclast: what is it and what does it do bone cell, tears down bone
what percentage of the skeleton consists of compact bone tissue? 80%
what percentage of the skeleton consists of spongy bone tissue? 20%
what is the radioactive tracer in a bone scan? tech 99
hot spots in a bone scan usually mean.. bone cancer and abnormal bone growth
cold spots in a bone scan usually mean.. rheumatoid arthritis, pagets, fractures, infection
where do bone nutrients enter the bone? enter via periosteum at the nutrient foramen
intramembranous ossification, what is it and what happens 1 of the two types of bone formation, bone formed from bone orgin
enchochondral ossification, what is it and what happens 1 of the two types of bone formation, bone forms as cartilage then turns into bone
at what age does epiphyseal plate closure occur? 18-25
list 3 triggers of bone homeostasis 1. exercise 2.diet 3.sedentary lifestyle
what minerals are factors of bone growth? calcium, magnesium, Iron, Zinc, Copper, Phosporus
what vitamins are factors of bone growth vitamin C, vitamin K1, vitamin A, vitamin B12, vitamin k2
what hormones are factors of bone growth? insulin, human growth, and thyroid
how does the SAD diet negatively affect bone? doesn't provide calcium requirement, high protein=calcium loss, high salt=calcium loss
what happens in a compound fracture? bone comes through the skin
what happens in a greenstick fracture? the bone breaks on one side but remains attached on the other
where does a potts fracture occur? tibia
where does a colles fracture occur? radius
where does a march fracture occur? toes
where does bar-room fracture occur? digits 3&4 (ring and pinky)
where does boxer fracture occur digits 1&2 (pointer and middle)
what percentage of the skeleton is calcium 98%-99%
3 factors of calcium homeostasis: PTH: increases blood calcium, Vitamin D3: increase blood calcium, calcitonin: decrease blood calcium
what is wolffs law? improvement of bone and density via mechanical stress
what are the effects of exercise? increased bone mass and reduced bone loss
aging/bone tissue: what happens and what causes it 1. loss of bone mass: demineralization 2. bone brittleness: decreased protein synthesis
what is the pediatric and adult version of rickets? pediatric: rickets, adult: osteomalacia
define osteoporosis, what is happening age related reduction of bone strength, loss of bone mass
7 risk factors of osteoporosis: 1. gender 2.family history 3.European or Asian ancestory 4.thin/petite frame 5. sedentary lifestyle 6.tobacco use 7.boozers
what prescription medication is used to treat OP? forteo, calcitonin, actonal. evista, menostar, miacalin, fosamax, reclast
non-medical ways to treat OP? decrease sodium, increase UV radiation, increase exercise, decrease phosphoric acid and carbonation, decrease carbs, vitamins
Created by: jguard423