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minerals and geology

What is a mineral? A naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a definite chemical composition and a characteristic crystalline structure.
What is the study of minerals? mineralogy
How do scientists determine if a substance is a mineral? Is the substance natural? Is the substance organic? Is the substance a crystalline solid at temperatures near the earth's surface? Does the substance have a definite chemical composition?
What form do minerals always exist in? Solid form
What is a crystalline solid? A solid whose particles are arranged in a regular, repeating, three dimensional pattern.
What is chemical composition? The relative abundance of the different types of atoms in a substance.
Elements consist of how many atoms? One kind.
Compounds consist of how many elements? More than one element.
What is an example of a native element? gold
What is an example of a compound? Fluorite
How are minerals classified? Silicate minerals and nonsilicate minerals
What are silicate minerals? Minerals that contain a combination of silicon and oxygen.
What is 96% of the earths crust made from? Silicate minerals
What is the most common silicate minerals in the earth's crust? Feldspar minerals
What is the most common mineral found in sand? Quartz
What are some examples of silicate minerals? Mica, Talc
What is the softest known mineral? Talc
What are nonsilicate minerals? Minerals that do not contain an combination of silicon and oxygen.
What are the categories of nonsilicate minerals? Native elements, carbonates, halides, oxides, sulfates and sulfides.
What are native elements? Elements made from only one element.
What are some examples of native elements? Gold, silver, and copper and sulfar
What makes up a carbonate mineral? combinations of carbon and oxygen
What are some examples of carbonates? Limestone, shells of marine oysters, cement
What is another name for rock salt? Halite
What are oxides? Compounds that contain oxygen and one other element.
What two elements make up sulfates? Sulfar and oxygen and one or more metals.
What is an example of a sulfide? Pyrite
What are the properties used to identify a mineral? By color, luster, streak, hardness, density, cleavage, and fracture.
How many properties do you need to use to identify a mineral? At least two.
What is luster? The way a mineral's surface reflects light.
What is hardness? The minerals resistance to being scratched.
What is the scale commonly used to measure hardness? Mohs Hardness Scale
If minerals in the Mohs scale is not available then what scale could be used? Field Hardness Scale
What is a streak? The color of the powder left by a mineral when it is rubbed against a hard, rough surface.
How is the streak of a mineral observed? With a streak plate
What is the difference between cleavage and fracture? Cleavage splits along sets of parallel, flat surfaces and fractures split irregularly.
What are some other properties that are used to identify some minerals? Taste, smell, magnetism, glow in ultraviolet light, feel, and radioactivity.
What are some actual minerals used by people frequently? Salt, gold, silver, copper, aluminum, iron
What is malleability? A substance's ability to be shaped or formed by hammering or pressure.
What is a malleable metal? Aluminum, gold, silver,copper
What is ductility? A substances ability to be drawn or pulled into wire.
What is ore? A naturally occurring rock from which a useful metal or mineral is recovered.
What was the first alloy discovered? Bronze
What is a rock? A hard substance composed of one or more minerals.
What are the three main types of rock? Igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.
What are igneous rocks formed from? Cooled and hardened magma or lava.
What is magma? melted rock beneath the earth's surface.
What is lava? Magma that has reached the earth's surface.
What are igneous rocks classified on? The basis of their mineral content and their texture.
What are felsic rocks? Light-colored, light-weight igneous rocks that are rich in silicon, aluminum, sodium and potasium.
What are mafic rocks? Dark colored, heavy igneous rocks that are rich in iron, magnesium, and calcium.
What are intrusive rocks? Igneous rocks formed when magma cools beneath the earth's surface.
What are extrusive rocks? Igneous rocks formed when lava cools on the Earth's surface.
What are sediments? Particles of minerals, rock fragments, shells, leaves, bones and other remains of once living things.
How are sedimentary rocks formed? From sediments that have been compacted adn cemented together.
What does lithification mean? To turn into stone.
What happens during cementation? The water carries dissolved minerals through sediments and leaves these minerals in the spaces between the sediments, gluing them together.
What happens during compaction? Pressure pushes the sediments together, squeezing air and water out the spaces between the fragments.
What distinguishes a sedimentary rock from other rocks? Their layers, also known as beds.
What are clastic rocks? Sedimentary rocks made of rock particles and fragments deposited by water, wind or ice.
What is a conglomerate rock? A clastic rock composed of rounded, pebble-sized rock fragments.
What are some examples of clastic rocks? Sandstone and Shale
What is the most common sedimentary rock? Shale
What is coal made from? Organic sedimentary rock made of carbon from ancient plant remains.
Would you be more likely to find a fosil in an igneous rock or a sedimentary rock? In a sedimentary rock because they are formed on the earth's surface.
Where does Breccia rock form? At the base of steep cliffs.
What is metamorphism? The process of change in the structure and constitution of a rock.
What are metamorphic rocks? Rocks formed when the structure and constitution of existing rocks change due to heat, pressure and/or chemical reactions.
What type of rocks can metamorphic rocks form from? Any type of rock.
What is contact metamorphism? It occurs when the heat of magma invades existing rocks.
What is regional metamorphism? It occurs when large pieces of the Earth's crust rub against each other, causing heat and pressure that change existing rocks.
What is foliated structure? A rock with visible layers or bands aligned in planes.
What are three common metamorphic rocks with a foliated structure? Slate, Schist, and gneiss.
What is an example of a rock with nonfoliated structure? Marble
Created by: 100000340832942