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Helping Relationship

Helping relationships D. Carson

How can specified words affect communication? First, no word is any language means the same thing to two different people. Personal experience and social context helps assign meanings to words. Using specified language of any type causes lack of understanding. If using an unfamiliar word with your c
What is the principal uses of action-based communication? Action feels safer along with words. Sharing over an activity such as lunch. Visuals create good substitutes for words as well. Artwork or pyhsical objects or graphics allow some people greater ability to communicate. Action make it easier for some pe
What is the acceptance relationship theory? relates directly to the counseling value of innate worth and dignity of the human being.
What is counter transference in relationships? this occurs when the counselor takes the feelings and opinions they have experienced with other people or clients in previous interpersonal relationships and unrealistically applies them to a client.
Marital Communication according to Mary Ann Fitzpatrick. 3 types - traditionalists - strongest relationship they rely on one another for friendship, advice and stability but self assured as ind. Independent-revolve around the need for power, outside friends & seperate bdrms. Separates-agrue, look for advice a
What are the pricipal elements of creating a message for communication. Resistance-not acceptable to discuss. Repression-person is unaware of the blocking process.
Discuss what the counselor should be aware of regarding potential barriers to effective communication with a client. pay attention, send clear messages, restatement may be needed,understanding of the meeting, sensitivity to uncomfortable subjects.
Explain the constructivist theory of communication. Jess Delia alleges that ind. who think better communicate and understand better.
List the principle elements of problems with communication. verbal messages are rarely sent free of non-verbal elements that can cloud or change it to some degree. Messages are rarely received in its entirety or exactly as the sender intended. Feelings affect messages, definitions of words are different as well.
What elements should a counselor be aware of when a client is translating a message the counselor has communicated to them. Optimally receiving a message. Client should hear and see a counselor clearly. Physical impairments, concentration, evaluate or resend the message.
Explain the four principle truths in interpersonal communication. It is impossible to be completely uncommunicative. Refusal to communicate, communicates something. Think first. Relationships and location of communication.
Explain Mark Knapp's model of relationship development. step one coming together-1. initiating, first contact 2. experimenting, getting to know one another 3. intensifying, taking the relationship beyone simple friendship 4. integrating, having mutual feelings 5. bonding, becoming as one.
Mark Knapp's 2nd step of relationship development. Dissolution -1. differentiating, beginning to notice ind. differences 2. circumscribing, talking around the real issue 3. stagnating, lack of communciation 4. avoiding, trying not to be around one another 5. terminating, end of the relationship.
Elements a counselor should use when encoding a message for communication. Starting communication, understanding takes place, trust and acceptance takes place, large understanding of various vocabulary.
Fundamental interpersonal relationship orientation theory of communication W.C. Shcutz - answers why people enter into relationships. inclusion, control and affection. Stems from childhood experience.
Discuss the principle elements of meta-communications. The non-verbal and tonal clues that are sent as parts of a message.
Barriers to effective communication. physical limitations having to do with sight,sound,or vocalization. Emotional or mental obstacles are possible. These can cause someone to ignore a message b/c of pain involved.
4 Types of obstacles to effective communication. projection, displacement, repression and reaction formation.
What is projection? means the person hears what they expect to hear instead of what the sender meant for them to hear.
What is displacement? when a message is assumed to come from someone who did not send it.
What is repression? when a person cannot hear part of the message at all.
What is reaction formation? occurs when a person completely reverses the meaning.
What is the interaction view of communication? one cannot change without a counselors help
Interaction view of communication has 5 axioms. What is the first? "one cannot not communicate" silence is a form of communication.
What is the second axiom of the Interaction view of communication? "human beings communicate both digitally and analogically," people use both symbols and words to send information.
What is axiom three? "communication=content+relationship". Content is what a person means to say while relatonship is how the person says it.
What is axiom Four of the Interaciton View of communication? "the nature of the relationship depends on how both parties punctuate the communication sequence" - how individuals express feelings from one interaction to the next.
Axiom 5 "All communication is either symmetrical or complementary." symmetrical = when both people have equal power. complementary=occurs when one person has more power than the other.
Define relational dialectics. an interpersonal communication model that looks at how close the relationship becomes. Closer relationships are harder to maintain than casual relationships.
First stressor to relational dialectics. integration vs. separation time an ind. wants to spend alone or together
Second stressor to relational dialectics. stability vs. change to look for new things(change) is a part of human nature but the couple must also have a strong sense of their relationship (stability) in order to survive.
Third stressor to relational dialectics. expression vs. nonexpression is the final stress factor, the amount an individual shares(expression) their emotion, thoughts and activities will change depending on the situation. some people are simple more introverted than other.
Discuss the principle elements of sending a communication. Noise and distraction are the most common problems in having a message received clearly. choose a proper time and place that is relatively quiet and calm to use when communicating is best.
Explain the component model of communication. The first of three is knowledge This model is used to explain communication competence. Knowledge is the ability to determine which type of communication are appropriate in a given situation. Knowledge, Skill, and motivation.
Explain the component model of communication. The second of three is skill. skills are learned aptitudes. For example, all people can speak but taking a class on elocution will dramatically improve a person's ability to speak in public.
Explain the component model of communication. The third of three is motivation. A person must want to communicate clearly and well in order to do so.
Discuss the principle elements of communication? decoding incoming messsages appropriately, previously known information must be linked to knew information, the listener must determine what they think about the info. Return message is important as well.
Discuss the elements a counselor should be aware of when a client is encoding a message for communication to the counselor. creating a safe environment, pay attention to verbal and non-verbals, must evaluate the client's meta-communication. Helping is the counselors job.
'Self' according to Albert Bandura. Bandurea saw the 'self' as three part model the individual, behavior, and environment.
An 'unproven' theoretical approach cited by the ACA is Conversion/Reparative therapy intended to convert homosexuals to heterosexuality. "unproven theory"
What is an eclectic/integrative counseling theory? Using ideas from two or more different theories
Bandura saw the 'individual (self)' as the part that takes some control over the behavior which is heavily influenced by the environment. The ind. is able to exert this control using self observation, judgmental processes and self-reaction.
What is the importance of feedback and evaluation? Feedback is non-judgemental for self-awareness. Evaluation is judgmental and follows a list of behaviors that the ind. receiving it should be doing. Formal is done in writing, notes in the margin of a writing assignment suggesting changes.
A form of informal feedback. it takes the form of spoken observations without letting the individual know if the behavior was good or bad.
A form of formal feedback. given is writing, notes in the margin of a writing assignment suggesting changes for example. Test scores and grades.
Define transference and counter-transference. Transference-occurs when the cl. attributes negative behaviors to the coun. and reacts to the cou. as if they were the person who hurt the cl. counter-transference is the negative feeling a cou. may feel toward the transference from the cl.
Why is Family Communication difficult to understand? It is based on a design created by the family to help them interact with one another and understand the world outside the family structure. Ind. mental health depends upon the family working and living well together. this depends on honest communication
The Family Communication Environment Instrument describes three factors that are part of the family communication. Expressiveness-the willingness to hear the views and emotions of all family members. Structural traditionalism-parents fill their roles. Avoidance-helps families stay away from distasteful subjects.
What is facial feedback? Darwin started f.f. in 1870's but discovered as real 100 yrs. later. person feels one way but expresses the opposite feeling then the first feeling will decrease. An expressed f.f. will create a feeling,muscles exp. tell the brain to feel that way.
Five Contextual factors of interpersonal communication. Psychological-who-sleep or depressed; relational-attitudes towards one another; psych-social "where"-friends or boss talking; environmental-"where" -time and temp. cultural contexts-behaviors learned.
Define Intimacy. a special relationship between two people. secrets shared, kissing or crying with one another, first have a strong sense of self.
Two main barriers to intimacy. fear of self-disclosure, unwilling to give the time necessary for forming strong intimate bonds.
Steps to successful conflict resolution. six steps- 1. never be angry 2. everyone envolved understands the problem 3. what you will comprimise on and what you won't 4. bring options 5. ask for a mediator 6. ask someone else for a solution.
Define emotion. Five factors 1. encounters, not done or thought 2. valence always positive or negative 3. person must think about their current situation in order to feel emotion 4. bodily responses 5. can become stronger or weaker.
Robert Plutchik lists the following eight inborn basic emotions: Joy, anticipation, anger, disgust, sadness, surprise, fear and acceptance.
For research purposes emotions are divided into, 'State' what is currently occurring and 'Trait' the frequency of a particular emotion.
Explain good communication. Active listening and self-expression. Time and place is important. Watch verbal and non-verbal cues. Children tend to use play. Privacy and calm surroundings for adults.
Define self-disclosure. It occurs when an ind. relates to information of a personal nature to another individual.
List the qualities of good communication. Counselor skills- 1. polite, 2. always on time 3. speaks personally to the client 4. uses everyday language 5. listens well 6. thinks b4 speaking 7. explains what is occuring 8. keeps promises 9. honest 10. patient 11. no assumption
Define self according to developmental theories. Erikson's work with James Marcia felt that only adolescents that worked through a period of identity crisis would become healthy well rounded adults.
Define self according to humanistic and existential theories Self- is not important to humanistic and existential theories. Rogers liked the idea of self-image to represent the entire person's beliefs. Maslow defined the idea of the 'self' to be apart of an individual's desire for "self-actualization."
Explain the Mother-Child bond. Secure attachments- mothers are gentle but strong in their supporting relationships with their children. Insecure attachments- baby does not respond to mother when she returns, or babies are upset to be left by mother but aren't excited when she returns.
Define 'self' according to the psychoanalytic and psychodynamic theories. Basically we are born with a self, we are born mentally healthy but with bad experiences we try to form a different self. Some think self does not arise until a child is appr. 3 years old and has learned to distunguish herself form other people.
altruism and non-altruism motivation Altruism is the unselfish concern for the welfare of others. Non is a negative state relief theory of helping was developed by Robert Caldini, sadness or sympathy; arousal-reduction by Bilavin physically feel bd send money/feel better; gain popularity.
Explain the theories of attraction; Donn Byrne and Gerald Clove/reinforcement-affect model of attraction. relationship creates somekind of a reward; Social exchange theory-benefits in joining a grp., Equity theory-weighing the positive and negatives.
Explain the movtives for affilation. Stay safe and gain resources. Not to be seen as an outcast or social-rebel. Something in common like bowling or quilting.
Restatement Rephrasing with emphasis on cognitive message.
Reflection rephrasing with emphasis on feeling.
Paraphrasing restating with emphasis on understanding.
Summarizing concise statement of the main points or ideas.
Silence Could mean that a person is thinking, bored, hostile, or waiting for the other person to take the lead.
Confrontation when the counselor identifies discrepancies and presents them to the client.
Structuring process by which the counselor defines the nature, limits and goals of counseling as well as the roles of the client and counselor.
How should the counselor should handle differences in age or gender in a client-counselor relationship. The counselor should be sure to treat evyone as an ind. Cslr should be aware of gender or age related cultural and social stereotypes.
Authentic relationship theory. The cslr. acts in shuch a way that the client can trust and believe in the counselor's honesty and genuine ability to help them. Creating an environment of trust.
Discuss the affect client age and gender can have on a client-counselor relationship. Some clients or cslr's feel that wide gaps in age can cause empathy or helping issues. Cslr's need to be sure to show both respect and understanding of the individual clent while working twds the trust needed for a fruitful relationship.
How does a cslr work with a client's choice of words to encourage owndership and specificity in their communication about problems. Verbal clues help send messages. Cslr has the client send specific messages for specific problems. Have the client restate a message simply.
How does a couselor handle group communication? Create a system of rules that will allow the group to communicate effectively. All members should feel safe speaking, each member is expected to interact,orderly, calm, and empathic fashion.
How should the counselor handle cultural influence in a client-counselor relationship. No stereotyping; be aware of cultural differences; race differences can be addressed at the proper time;
Qualities of effective counselors' Najavitis and Weiss later, Strupp Should have strong interpersonal skills and counseling effectiveness.
Qualities of effective counselors Capuzzi and Gross 3 models, personal characteristics; psychological health models; multidimensional health and wellness. Counselor should have health and wellness.
Qualities of effective counselors Carl Rogers concreteness(specificity) congruency (geniuineness) empathy (understanding) positve regard (accepting) immediacy and respect
Qualities of effective counselors Meier and Davisd 1. aware of personal issues, 2. open to supervision 3. not hiding behind the use of too many tests. 4. consulting when involved in ethical delimmas.
Qualities of effective counselors George and Cristiani/Composite Model Openness to and acceptance of experience, awareness of values, ability to develop warm and deep relationships, willingness to be seen by others as one actually is, willingness to accept personal responsibility for ones own behaviors, devel. of real.
Therapies/ relationships Sexton Clinical models Counselor No one best theoretical approach.
Therapies/ relationships Sexton and Whiston Collaborative Counseling Relationship learning action
Counselor Variables skillfulness, cognitive complexity, ability to relate, assess the problem.
Therapies/ relationships Grencavage and Norcross client expectations, facilitative therapeutic relationships.
If a client has two or more areas of functioning impairments....... their therapy should by lengthy and have psychoactive medication.
If a client has little social support from others....... they will need lengthy therapy.
Clients who internalize need inerpersonal and insight oriented therapy
Clients who externalize symptom focus therapy/ skill building therapies
Human Resources Development Model HRDM/Robert Carkhuff/ Rogers Together they felt people grow. a. two people in psychological contact b. one is incongruent c. helper is in state of congruence d. helper provides empathy e. helper unconditionally yielding positive regard f. all conditions above the minimal level
Human Resources Development Model HRDM/Robert Carkhuff/ Rogers Respect, concreteness, empathy, and genuineness were most effective during stages 1 and 2
Human Resources Development Model HRDM/Robert Carkhuff/ Rogers self-disclosure, and confrontation were most effective in stages 3 and 4.
Moral Model: 1. Reality therapy 2. Rational-emotive therapy 3. Existential therapy 4. Person-Centered therapy 5. Gestalt therapy
Compensatory model: 1. Adlerian therapy 2. Behavior therapy 3. Transactional analysis
Transpersonal model: 1. Spiritual 2. Wholistic
Medical model: 1. Psychoanalytic therapy
Constructivist therapies: 1. Solution-focused 2. Narrative therapy
Integrative and eclectic therapies: 1. Technical and theoretical integration 2. Psychodynamic behavior 3. Multimodal therapy
Enlightenment model: 1. Alcoholics 2. Daytop Village 3. Overeaters Anonymous 4. Weight Watchers
Johari Awareness Model examines the dynamics of communication. Quadrant 1 is the open quadrant that contains material about the self that is known to both the client and the person with whom he/she interacts. The client openly communicates this material to the counselor.
Johari Awareness Model examines the dynamics of communication. Quadrant 2 is the blind quadrant that contains material about the self that is known by others but is not recognized
Johari Awareness Model examines the dynamics of communication. Quadrant 3 is the hidden quadrant containing material about the self that the person is aware of but is not known to people with whom he/she interacts. The client is consciously aware of this information but does not share it.
Johari Awareness Model examines the dynamics of communication. Quadrant 4 is the unknown quadrant that contains material about the self that is out of the awareness of both the client and the counselor.
PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY The key to understanding human behavior is understanding the unconscious. People are driven by instincts.
defense mechanism is an unconscious response to a conscious stressor or anxiety.
Created by: dcarson45