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Microbiology 302

Midterm 1 notecards

Robert Hooke 1st drawing of microorganisms, first to use word cell
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Made first simple microscope, first to describe animcules
Francesco Redi Raw meat experiment (1st to challenege spontaneous generation)
Louis Pasteur Swan Neck Flask experiment (spontaneous generation) developed vaccines
James Tyndall fractional sterilization
Robert Koch bacteria causing disease anthrax, Koch's Postulates
Carl Woese RNA sequencing, 16s/18s RNA two different groups for bacteria and archea
Lynn Marguelis Endosymbiotic theory in 1967
Han Christian Gram gram staining technique
Carl Linneaus the binomial naming system
What is the importance of the surface area to volume ratio? increases nutrient uptake and molecule diffusion, increases growth rate.
Differences in 5 kingdom and 3 domain system 5 kingdom has microbes in 3 kingdoms with prokaryotes in Monera. The domain system just has bacteria, archea and eukarya.
Explain endosymbiotic theory and the evidence supporting it. Mitochondria, chloroplasts and hydrogenosomes evolved from bacterial endosymbionts of ancentral eukaryotic cells. Evidence: ability to carryout aerobic respiration, the double membranes of organelles.
Green Florscent Protein excites at ____ and emits at _____ 395 and 509
Limitations of Koch's Postulates doesn't support asymtomatic carriers, can't always grow the organism in cell culture, shows casual relationships.
To increase resolution lower the wavelength or increase numerical aperture.
In lysis, what are the conditions outside the cell lower solute concentrations outside, high inside. Water moves in to create equilibrium
in plasmolysis, what are the conditions outside the cell high solute concentration ourside, low inside. Water leaves to create an equilibruim.
Name the 4 steps of binary fission 1. cell elongation 2. chromosome replication and separation 3. septum formation 4. cell division
What recruits to the septum ring to initiate cell division? FTSZ
Which two bacteria don't physically separate during cell division? diplobacillicis, streptococcus
What is the equation for Generation time? G=t/n
What is the equation for mean growth rate? u=n/t
What is the equation for population size? P(f)=P(i)*2^n
What is the equation for generation time and growth rate? (logfinal-loginitial)/(0.301*t)
what is an episome? plasmids that integrate into the chromosome
what is curing? loss of a plamsid that happens spontaneously.
Flexible bacteria with a helical shape are called spirochetes
Ridgid bacteria with a helical shape are called spirilla
Sterol-like molecules called hopanoids are thought to be important for the structural integrity of many bacteria because of their suspected role in membrane stabilization. True
Shrinkage of the plasma membrane away from the cell wall when the bacterium is placed in a hypertonic environment is called plasmolysis
Although penicillin inhibits peptidoglycan synthesis, bacterial cells will continue to grow normally in the presence of penicillin in a(n) __________ environment. isotonic
The layers of peptidoglycan of the bacterial cell wall can be cross-linked by peptide intrabridges or by direct cross-linking. False
Intracellular granules of organic or inorganic material that are stockpiled by bacteria for future use are called inclusions
Bacteria have a region of the cytoplasm known as the __________, which is not bounded by a membrane but contains the chromosome. nucleoid
Some species of aquatic bacteria use inclusion bodies known as ________ to orient themselves in Earth's magnetic field. magentosomes
Sedimentation coefficients are proportional to the molecular weight of a particle and are not affected by the volume and shape of the particle. false
Viruses have what 4 types of nucleic acid? ss DNA, ssRNA, dsDNA, dsRNA
Bacteria have only one type of nucleic acid what is it? dsDNA
What are the four types of asexual reproduction? budding, binary fission, multiple fission, spores
Created by: canderson1515