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Psychobiology 2

Blocks 5-7

What 2 functions are separated in the nervous system? Sensory and Motor
Give 2 names for fibers carrying information to the CNS/neurons Sensory, afferent
Give 2 names for fibers carrying information from the CNS/neurons Motor, efferent
Rostral/anterior= Towards the tip of the head
Caudal/posterior= Towards tip of tail/human feet
Dorsal= "Upper surface of body" (back)
Ventral= "Bottom surface of body" (stomach)
Medial vs. Lateral= Close to midline vs farther from midline
How many pairs of spinal nerves branch off from spinal cord? 31 pairs
Each single spinal nerve has 2 roots, name them and their respective locations and functions Dorsal roots= sensory, afferent. Ventral roots= motor, efferent.
What is the DRG and where is it located? Dorsal Root Ganglia= cell bodies for all sensory neurons entering spinal cord. Located on Dorsal root outside of CNS in Peripheral Nerv. System
Each spinal nerve receives info from/sends info to specific striped regions in body called what? Dermatomes
What are cauda equina? Long nerves that dangle down from spinal cord and branch off to the legs
A cold sore on your lip is a sign that what is infected? The nerve connected to your lip
Translucent CNS tissue is called ___, whereas opaque CNS tissue is called ___ Gray matter, white matter
White matter in the CNS is also called what? (3 names) Tract, fasciculus, or pathway
White matter consists of afferent and efferent fibers running which direction and in what form in spinal cord? Up and down, in myelinated axons
Gray matter is the collection of what in the spinal cord? In what form? Cell bodies, unmyelinated structures
Where is the gray matter located and what does it look like? Central region of spinal cord (Central Gray Region), 4 lobes
What is gray matter home to? Spinal (sensory)dorsal and (motor) ventral function
Where is the first cell in sensory pathway's soma located and what is it called? In the DRG (PNS), first-order neuron (1*)
Where is second-order (2*) neuron located in sensory pathway? Spinal cord (CNS)
Where is the third-order neuron (3*) located in sensory pathway? Brain (CNS)
Define decussation Nerve fibers cross midline to innervate structures on other side of body, therefore left brain controls right side of body and vice versa
What is it called when a projection crosses? Contralateral
What is it called when a projection stays on the same side? Ipsilateral
Sensory function uses two types of fibers, name them. Mechanoreceptors and Nociceptors
Mechanoreceptors carry what type of sensory information? All except pain (pressure, touch)
Nociceptors carry what type of sensory information? Pain. Activated by tissue damage stimuli.
Which fibers are larger and quicker; mechanoreceptors or nociceptors? Mechanoreceptors
After mechanoreceptors enter the spinal cord, where does it go? (Be specific) Ascends ipsilaterally in dorsal column of cord without synapsing
(Mechanoreceptors) Where does the 1* cell connect with 2* cell? In the brainstem
(Mechanoreceptors) What does the 2* cell do/where does it go? Decussates and projects onto 3* neuron in Thalamus
What is considered the 'Grand Central Station' for all sensory information? Thalamus
What is the likely transmitter in 1* nociceptors? Substance P (pain neurotransmitter)
Where are the nociceptors' 1* cells located? DRG
(Nociceptors) Where does 1* cell synpast onto 2* cell? Dorsal horn of spinal cord
(Nociceptors) What does the 2* cell do/where does it go? Deccusate and project to brainstem onto 3* cell in thalamus and reticular formation
An epidural is an injection of a substance into spinal cord which blocks what? Sodium channels so calcium is not released
Where is the origin for motor commands? (2 names) ____ motor neurons are housed here. Cerebral cortex/Motor cortex, upper
Where are lower motor neurons located? Ventral horn of Spinal Cord
Describe pathway of motor neurons Upper MNs project axons to contact lower MN, lower MNs project axons which exit CNS and innervate skeletal muscles
Cell bodies of lower MNs are found where in ventral horn? Gray matter
How/where do axons leave SN? Ventral roots
Synapse of LMNs to muscles exclusively uses what NT? Acetylcholine
Created by: maryel99