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Pathophys U2 ch 6

Pathophysiology Unit 2, Ch. 6

Aldosterone fluid balance control mechanism; adrenal cortex hormone that determines reabsorption of sodium ions and water from kidney tubules; conserve more fluid when body fluid deficit is present
Anion negatively charged ion
Anorexia loss of appetite
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) fluid balance control mechanism; pituitary hormone that controls the amt of fluid leaving the body in urine; promotes reabsorption of water into the blood from the kidney tubules
Ascites abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity
Atrial natriuretic peptide fluid balance control mech; hormone from atria myocardial cells; reduces heart workload by regulating fluid, Na, and K lvls;
Capillary permeability capacity of vessel walls to allow molecules to pass through
Carpopedal spasm strong muscular contraction of the hand/foot
Cation positively charged ion
Diffusion movement of molecules from area of high concentration to low concentration
Diuretic substance that encourages urination; can be used as a form of fluid balance control since it causes the body to expel fluid
Dysrhythmia irregular rhythm, in reference to heartbeats/brainwaves
Electrocardiogram record of electrical conduction in the heart
Extracellular environment outside of the cell
Filtration passage through a filter or other material that prevents passage of certain molecules, particles, or substances; movement of water and solutes from blood into ISF
Hydrogen ions amount of these ions determines the acidity of a solution; more = acidosis; fewer = alkalosis
Hydrostatic pressure “push” force;
Hypertonic/hyper-osmolar solution with greater concentration of solutes/higher osmotic pressure than that inside the cells present in the solution
Hypervolemia increased blood volume
Hypothalamus portion of the brain located below the thalamus and above the brain stem; control center for hunger, thirst, temperature, sleep, circadian cycles
Hypotonic/hypo-osmolar solution with lower concentration of solutes as compared to another solution
Hypovolemia decreased blood volume
Interstitial fluid considered extracellular fluid; intercellular fluid, or fluid between cells
Intracellular environment inside of a cell
Intravascular fluid considered extracellular fluid; blood
Isotonic/iso-osmolar solution has same tonicity of that it is being compared to; aka “equal” so no transfer of water/solutes to even out concentrations
Laryngospasm closure of the larynx obstructing the airway
Milliequivalent (mEq) unit of measure applied to electrolytes; describes the concentration of electrolytes in a solution
Nonvolatile metabolic acids excreted by kidneys; include lactic acid, ketoacids, sulfates, phosphates; not excreted by lungs, and not carbon based
Osmoreceptor sensory nerve receptor stimulated by changes in fluid and electrolyte concentrations
Osmosis force that draws water through a semipermeable membrane from a solution of lower concentration (ISF) to solution of higher concentration (blood)
Osmotic pressure “pull” force;
Paresthesias abnormal sensations
Skin turgor indicates tension of the skin based on pressure within the cells; measure of dehydration
Tetany repeated skeletal muscle contractions or spasms; seen in extremities and face, related to increased irritability of the nerves, often associated with hypocalcemia
Third-spacing refers to a situation in which fluid shifts out of blood into a body cavity/tissue where it is no longer available as circulating fluid; ex. peritonitis, burns; results in hypovolemia and excess fluid in interstitial space
Transcellular fluids present in various secretions, such as in the pericardial cavity or synovial cavities of joints
Edema excess fluid in the interstitial compartment
cause of edema increased capillary hydrostatic pressure, forcing excessive amts of fluid out and prevents return of fluid from interstitial compartment
cause of edema loss of plasma proteins, reducing plasma osmotic pressure
cause of edema obstruction of lymphatic circulation, restricting return of excess fluid & protein to general circulation
cause of edema increased capillary permeability—as in inflammation, resulting in fluid & protein mvmnt into interstitial compartment
obstruction of lymphatic circulation due to removal of lymphatic vessels; increased capillary permeability & hydrostatic pressure immediately following surgery state the cause responsible for edema formation with a swollen arm following mastectomy
loss of plasma proteins due to decreased production of plasma proteins edema in the form of abdominal swelling accompanying liver failure/cirrhosis is caused by what?
Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure, increased permeability edema as swelling accompanied by inflammation is caused by what?
Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure due to increased blood volume, poss. Due to decreased capillary osmotic pressure b/c of protein wasting generalized edema that occurs in severe kidney disease is caused by what?
Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure due to gravity cause of edema as swelling of ankles that often happens at end of day/prolonged standing
increased capillary hydrostatic pressure and increased capillary permeability due to inflammation swelling that occurs following multiple tooth extractions is caused by what?
obstruction of lymphatic circulation or increased capillary hydrostatic pressure if blood vessels are compressed cause of edema that may accompany cancer
increased capillary permeability and loss of plasma proteins cause of edema that accompanies burns
increased capillary hydrostatic pressure due to increased water retention cause of edematous hands and ankles that sometimes accompany excessive ingestion of salt
loss of plasma proteins due to decreased synthesis of plasma proteins cause of the abdominal swelling that occurs with starvation
increased capillary hydrostatic pressure cause of swelling of the ankles associated with heart problems
increased capillary hydrostatic pressure and increased capillary permeability due to inflammation swelling associated with allergic reactions, such as hives
manifestations of dehydration sunken, soft eyes, decreased skin turgor, thirst, weight loss, rapid weak pulse, low BP, fatigue, weakness, dizziness, possible stupor, increased body temp, hypovolemic shock.
Renal failure, prolonged vomiting/diarrhea, excessive sweating, diuretic therapy, aldosterone insufficiency causes of hyponatremia
Tetany skeletal muscle spasms due to hypocalcemia
Hypokalemia, hyperkalemia, hypocalcemia, hypercalcemia electrolyte imbalances that affect normal cardiac function
Created by: michellerogers