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AP Quiz 2

Molecules, Cells, & Molecules

Two or more atoms bonded together Molecule
Pure substance containing identical molecules Compounds
Body's first choice for energy. Always made up of C, H, & O. Carbohydrates
Nutrients that do not dissolve in water. Mostly C & H with a pinch of O. Used for storing energy Lipids (fats)
Made out of building blocks called amino acids. There are 23 different amino acids. All proteins contain C, H, O, & N. Protein
Molecules that carry info that is used to make proteins. Nucleic Acids
Most common molecule in the body. Water
Contain mostly carbon made by living things Organic Compounds
A mixture that contains one or more chemicals that are dissolved Solutions
Something that dissolves other chemicals Solvent
Material that is being dissolved Solute
Solution with a greater osmotic pressure than what its compared with Hypertonic
Solution with less osmotic pressure than what its being compared with Hypotonic
Solutions with the same osmotic pressure Isotonic
A way of measuring the concentration of hydrogen ions. An aqueous solution. pH
Runs from 0 to 14. Neutral is exactly 7. 7 is the pH of pure water. pH scale
>7 more hydrogen Acids
<7 less hydrogen Bases
The basic unit of structure and function found in all living things. Cells
A cell that contains all of the parts that might be found in a real cell. This type of cell does not exist. A composite cell.
The barrier between fluid inside of the cell and the fluid outside of the cell. The Cell Membrane.
Makes the membrane flexible. (found between the tails) Cholesterol
Binding sights for sending chemical messages. They receive signals such as neurotransmitters and chemicals. Receptors
How things are moved around-they are very specific-they only allow certain things to go through. Pores/Channels
Used to move things into the cell-they change shape to carry something across. Carriers
Can go through the barrier. EX-lipids can go through the phospholipid bilayer. Permeable
Needs a carrier or channel to help it through the membrane Impermeable
Some things can cross and some things cannot pass through the membrane Semipermeable (selectively permeable)
Liquid between the cell membrane and the organelles (cell fluid) The cytoplasm
Structures found inside of the cell. The organelles
Smallest organelle in the cell. It's function is to make proteins. Ribosomes
A group of connective tubes used to move things around withing the cell. Endoplasmic Reticulum.
Packages things so it can get out of the cell through the membrane. Golgi Apparatus.
Changes one type of fuel to another. Mitochondria
Used to breakdown things a cell does not need. They use enzymes to break it down. Lysosomes.
A pair of organelles found near the nucleus. It's function is to help separate the genes during mitosis so each new cell gets a full set. Centrioles.
Moves something in a certain direction that is outside of the cell. Cilia
Moves the cell. Sperm cell is the only cell with this. Flagellam.
Pores in wall lets things in and out. It is the largest organelle you can see in a cell. Its function..controls which genese are going to be used by that cell. They control how often and when that gene will be used Nucleus
Darker part of the nucleus. It's function is to make ribosomes. Nucleolus
Where we find DNA in nucleus of cells that are not dividing. Its function allows the cell to use the genes Chromatin
23 pairs of bundled DNA. Found when a cell is dividing. Its function moving packages that allow us to sort the genes in the DNA. Chromosomes.
What our cells use for energy ATP
If it uses ATP for energy Active Transport
Does not use ATP for energy Passive Transport
Relies on random movement of dissolved molecules. (random movement of solutes from energy of high concentration to areas of low concentration. EX drop of food coloring in water Diffusion
Random movement of solutes from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Uses a protein to cross the cell membrane Facilitated Diffusion
Random movement of water from an area of low concentration of solute to areas of high concentration of solute across a semipermeable membrane. Osmosis
Relies on differences in pressure. This happens in every tissue in your body. Filtration
Found on nerve cells, muscle cells, and some cells in our kidneys. Na/K pumps
Takes things inside of the cell and packages them into vessicals Endocytosis
Takes in a liquid Pinocytosis
is endocytosis that takes in a solid Phagocytosis
Moving a vessical outside of a cell Exocytosis
When a stem cell changes into a specialized cell. When a set of cells choose a gene. Differentiation
Replication of DNA. When a cell does its job. Interphase
*adds set of centrioles *centrioles move to opposite sides Prophase
2 sets of centrioles at pole. Chromosomes at equator. Spindle fibers. Metaphase
Chromosomes are moved to opposite sides. Cell changes shape Anaphase
Starts to build a nucleus. Change DNA back to chromatin. Telophase
When a cell starts to pinch in half Cytokinesis
A rounded projection or tooth, as on the margin of a leaf. Crenation
The breaking down of red blood cells with liberation of hemoglobin. Hemolysis
Created by: 808963851