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DC Human G & D

Debbie's Going to ACE this Test

Key concepts of Piaget's theory of development of children schema, assimilation, accommodation, equilibration
schema (Piaget's theory of development of children) base - include both categories of knowledge and the process by which the knowledge is obtained - changes as new experiences add to knowledge
assimilation (Piaget's theory of development of children) adding of new information to existing schemas
accommodation (Piaget's theory of development of children) changing existing schemas to fit new information and experiences
equilibration (Piaget's theory of development of children) balance between assimilation and accommodation (balance of applying experience)
Piaget's Theory of Development: birth - 2 yrs preoperational - language develops and child is egocentric
Piaget's Theory of Development: 7 - 11 concrete operational - child begins to think logically but still has trouble with abstract concepts
Piaget's Theory of Development: 11 or 12 - adulthood formal operational - child develops capability of logical though, deductive reasoning and systematic planning
3 levels of Kohlberg's theory preconventional morality, conventional morality, postconventional morality
Preconventional level of Kohlberg's theory period in which a child is influenced by reward and punishment
2 stages in Preconventional Morality Level of Kohlber's theory Stage 1 - Obedience and Punishment Orientation - child sees authority as handing down the rules on right and wrong. Stage 2 - Individualism and Exchange - child begins to perceive that there is not just one right way to do things
Conventional Level Morality of Kohlberg's Theory period when the person strives to meet standards set by the family and society; person is often a teenager by the time he or she reaches Stage 3.
2 stages in Conventional Morality Level of Kohlberg's Theory Stage 3 - Good Interpersonal Relationships - person is motivated by such feelings s love, empathy and concern for others. Stage 4 - Maintaining the Social Order - person becomes more concerned with society as a whole
Postconventional Morality of Kohlberg's Theory period of self-accepted principles.
2 stages in Postconventional Morality of Kohlberg's Theory Stage 5 - Social Contract and Individual Rights - person begins to think about what makes a good society and what any society should value. Stage 6 - Universal Principles - person has a concern for justice and its impartial application to everyone
empiricists maintains that experience is the only source of knowledge; doctrine formulated by John Locke and is the forerunner of behaviorism
organicism theory that the total organization of an organism is the determinant of life processes; Gestalt psychologists like Kurt Goldstein subscribe to this theory
psychodiagnostic type of testing that assesses how a pt's thinking and emotions may affect his or her behavior
Theory associated with Rogers Person-Centered - people are essentially good and under the right conditions will move themselves toward self-actualization
Theory associated with Berne Transactional Analysis - each person has the 3 ego states of parent, adult and child
Theory associated with Freud Phsycoanalysis - biological instinct and development through psychosexual stages control people
Theory associated with Ellis Rational - Emotive Behavior Therapy - a person's instincts are both rational and irrational, but different reactions can be taught
Theory associated with Perls Gestalt - People are whole and complete but are affected by their environment. Learning and change result from how a person organizes experience.
Id component of the personality most concerned with primitive instincts such as hunger, sex, and aggression and is not concerned with the consequences of actions.
Ego personality component responsible for balancing the id and the superego or conscience; has most immediate control over behavior and is most concerned with external reality
Relationship of id/ego Along with superego - part of Freud's theory of personality. By the age of 3, the child develops ego. Ego meets the needs of the id while taking the child's reality into consideration.
Glasser - theory associated with him and view of human nature Reality Therapy - people have physical needs such as food and shelter plus the need to feel worthwhile and be successful
Adler - theory associated with him and view of human nature Individual Psychology - people are essentially good. Birth order determines much of a person's behavior.
Jung - theory associated with him and view of human nature Analytic Psychology: people strive for self-fulfillment
Skinner - theory associated with him and view of human nature Behavioral/Cognitive Behavioral Modification - humans are machines that cannot make free-will decisions. Behavior is learned from a person's environment and the reinforcement he receives from others
Frankl - theory associated with him and view of human nature Existential - people are good and rational, and have freedom to choose their behavior
Williamson - theory associated with him and view of human nature Trait-factor - the potential for both good and bad is innate.
EDMR (Eye Movement Desensitazation and Reprocessing) an information processing therapy that uses an eight-phase approach to reduce the emotional stress of a distressing event or memory
Umwelt, Mitwelt and Eigenwelt in Existential philosophy the three components of the conscious experience of being alive
Umwelt biological
Mitwelt social
Eigenwelt psychological
parroting the counselor repeats what the client has said
paraphrasing counselor rephrases what the client has said
summarization counselor sums up or reviews what has happened in a session or in the course of the therapy
bibliotherapy the use of books or other written material as part of therapy
musterbations absolutionist thinking by the client - the use of "musts, shoulds, and oughts"
awfulizations looking at a situalion or anticipating an event with irrational beliefs about how awful or difficult it is
Konrad Lorenz worked with goslings and applied his results to the principle of "critical periods".
"Critical Periods" the concept that certain behaviors must be learned at specific stages of development or they may not be learned at all; heredity and environment are both important in critical periods of development.
Imprinting (associated with Konrad Lorenz) refers to the way newly hatched ducks and geese instinctively follow the first moving object they see (usually the mother but may be any living or non-living thing)
William Perry developed "Scheme of Intellectual and Ethical Development" based on his studies of college students. The scheme consists of 4 general categories with 3 positions in each category.
Category 1 of Perry's Scheme of Intellectual and Ethical Development Dualism - divided into basic and full. Basic - believes authorities know the truth. Full - position begin to realize that not all authorities know all the truth.
Category 2 of Perry's Scheme of Intellectual and Ethical Development Multiplicity - divided into Early and Late positions. Students in this category come to believe that any opinion is as good as any other and realize that there is more than one approach to solving a problem.
Category 3 of Perry's Scheme of Intellectual and Ethical Development Relativism - divided into Contextual and Precommitment. Students here realize that knowledge is subject to change and that opinions develop from values, experiences and knowledge.
Category 4 of Perry's Scheme of Intellectual and Ethical Development Commitment - has 3 positions (Commitment, Challenges to Commitment, and Post-Commitment). In these positions, the student is focused on moral, ethical, and identity development.
epigenetic theory that states that an individual is formed by successive development of an unstructured egg rather than by the growth of a preformed entity. Kohlberg, Erikson and Maslow used epigenetic principles in developing their theories of human development
cephalocaudal from head to tail and can be used to refer to the head of a fetus developing before the legs
in vivo desensitization a behavior therapy technique in which a person is gradually exposed to something he fears
instinctual an adjective derived from instinct and refers to behavior that is innate rather than learned
ethology the study of animals in their natural environment and makes use of Darwinian theory. Ethology research findings can be applied to humans as "comparative psychology."
psychometrics the design, administration and interpretation of tests that measure intelligence, aptitude and personality characteristics
psychopharmacology the study of the effects of drugs on psychological functions
broad categories used to categorize the theories of human development learning, cognitive, psychoanalytic, humanistic, qualitative, quantitative, continuous, discontinuous, mechanistic, organismic
learning (category of human development) includes behavioral, social learning and information-processing theories
cognitive (category of human development) concerned with obtaining knowledge
phychoanalytic the method of investigating psychological phenomena developed by Freud
humanistic explains development through reasoning and the scientific method.
qualitative a way in which human growth and development changes are viewed - involves a change in structure such as sexual development
quantitative a way in which human growth and development changes are viewed - measurable changes occur such as in intellectual development
continuous a way in which human growth and development changes are viewed - denotes sequential changes that cannot be segmented, for example personality development
discontinuous a way in which human growth and development changes are viewed - changes in abilities and behaviors such as language that develop in stages
mechanistic a way in which human growth and development changes are viewed - places behaviors in common groups, such as instinctual or reflexive
oranismic a way in which human growth and development changes are viewed - new stages of development use cognition and includes moral and ethical development
John Bowlby believes that bonding with an adult before the age of 3 is vital if a person is to lead a normal social life; lack of bonding, or a bond that is severed during infancy, can cause abnormal behavior or psychopathology
John Bowlby believed that the _________ should be the primary caregiver for the child and the father in the role of emotional supporter for the mother. mother
Harry Harlow work with monkeys led him to believe attachment to be an innate tendency; saw monkeys raised in isolation develop autistic and abnormal behavior; placing those monkeys with normally reared ones could somewhat reverse those behaviors
Maslow's hierarchy of needs developed a theory of motivation which he called a hierarchy of needs; a person must first satisfy basic needs such as the need for food and shelter before he can turn his attention to higher needs.
Order of Maslow's hierarchy of needs (from basic to higher) physiological; security/safety; belonging/love; esteem; self-actualization
Gesell's maturationist theory holds that development is a biological process that proceeds in an orderly and predictable manner, and is independent of environmental influences
Behaviorism theory of learning learning is a change of behavior brought about by the consequences of behaviors - the child is rewarded for a desireable behavior or punished for an undesireable behavior. Punishment can be active (denial of a privelage) or passive (behavior is ignored).
Edward Thorndike work has been important to behaviorism - formulated the "law of effect" which states that a behavior followed by a reward is strengthened and more likely to be repeated.
John Watson and B.F. Skinner their work has been important to behaviorism
nature vs. nurture the question of whether a person is more influenced by nature (genetic and hereditary traits) or by nurture (learning from parents and others in his environment and social setting).
genotype genetic makeup of an organism
phenotype physical or biochemical characteristics determined by genetics and the environment of an organism
tabula rasa John Locke's philosophy that a child is born with an unformed mind that develops through experience (blank slate).
plasticity smooth transition of a person from one stage of development to the next
resiliency ability of a person to deal successfully with adverse conditions and adapt effectively
intelligence "the capacity to acquire and apply knowledge"; thought of as the ability to reason, think in abstract terms and understand abstract ideas, plan, and acquire language and knowledge
Piaget's definition of intelligence - specified adaptive thinking or action; not determined solely by genetics; also involves a person's environment, experiences, and culture
major criticism of intelligence testing it often is culturally biased and measures things some people have not had the opportunity to learn
emotional intelligence (according to Daniel Goleman) self-motivation and self-awareness, empathy, social awareness, and persistence. The emotionally intelligent person also has strong interpersonal skills.
Nancy Chodorow saw psychoanalytic theory as using gender stereotyping with male-imposed standards; devalues feminine qualities and contributes to women's status as second-class citizens.
Jean Baker Miller defined "care taking" as helping others to develop emotionally, intellectually, and socially. In her opinion, care taking is the main factor that differentiates women's development from that of men.
Harriet Lerner Writing expressed idea that women need to achieve a healthier balance between activities that center on others and those that center on themselves; she believes that women need to show strength, independence, and assertiveness in their relationships
Carol Tavris believes that society "pathologizes" women and judges them according to how they fit into a male world; sees women as not really different from men, but perceived as different because of roles the male dominated society has assigned to them
Carol Gilligan her opinion is that women develop "in relationship" to other women and that their communication patterns are different from those of men; women make moral judgement based on human relationships and caring while men use justice and rights
Gail Sheehy Her book, Passages, tells of the transitional, crisis periods between the stages of a woman's life that provide opportunities for growth.
Oedipus Complex According to Freud; occurs during phallic stage of development of boys - usually between 3 and 5; complex involve the child's subconscious sexual feelings to the mother; jealous of the father - may want them dead
Electra Complex According to Freud; occurs during phallic stage of development of girls - usually between 3 and 5; complex involve the child's subconscious sexual feelings to the father; jealous of the mother - may want them dead
Oedipus and Electra Complexes end: in the development of the conscience or superego
Created by: akgalyean