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Bio 108 Test 1

Kutztown University 2012 Botany

The middle lamella is composed of.. Pectin (a structural polysaccharide found in plant cell walls)
What is the middle lamella? a layer of adhesive substance rich in pectin which cements the cell walls of adjacent cells
What are plasmodesmata? tiny strands of cytoplasm that extend between adjacent cells.
What is plant morphology? the study of the form and external structure of plants
Name 4 characteristics of a living organism Movement, Metabolism, Reproduction, Adaptation to the environment, response to stimuli, complex oganization, and growth
What is the mitochondria? The site of aerobic cellular respiration
What is the tonoplast? The membrane found around the vacuole
What are carbohydrates? They are the most abundant organic compounds found in nature - contain C, H and O
What is a polymer? a macromolecule composed of many monomers bound together
Name 4 important classes of polymers Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids
What are lipids? fatty oily substances that are mostly insoluble in water. They typically store 2x as much energy as similar amounts of carbohydrate. important in energy reserves and structural components
What are proteins? Consist of C, H, O, N, and sometimes Sulfer atoms. Regulate chemical functions in cells. Large and consist of one or more polypeptide chains
What are polypeptides? Chains of amino acids
What is a peptide bond? a covalent bond formed between the carboxyl carbon of one amino acid and the nitrogen of the amino group of another in a dehydration reaction
What are enzymes? Mostly large, complex proteins that function as organic catalysts under specific conditions of pH and temperature
What are nucleic acids? Exceptionally large, complex polymers which are vital to normal internal communication and functioning of all living cells (DNA&RNA)
What is plant physiology? the study of plant function
What is plant ecology? the study of plant interaction with one another and with their environment
What is lignin? It's the woody part of a 2ndary cell wall.Provides water proofing, decay resistance and adds rigidity. Stains red with phloroglucinal HCL
What are pits? regions where there is no 2ndary wall present. Transport from adjacent cells take place through pits
Are lysosomes typically present in plant cells? No
What are Plastids? the site of manufacture and storage of important chemical compounds
Name three plastids: Choroplasts, chromoplasts, leucoplasts
Immature cells have many small... vacuoles which eventually fuse into large central vacuoles
Cell sap in the vacuole contains... wastes, oils, salts, sugars, protein, water and plant pigments
Anthocyanins are: pigments within the vacuoles (red, purple or blue) color is pH dependant
Cell wall contains... cellulose and carbohydrates
What is starch? repeating glucose monomers; not in cell wall
microfibrils bundles of cellulose molecules
What holds microfibrils together? pectin
(T:F) All plant cells have a primary cell wall? True
Primary Cell Wall First form cell wall; not rigid. Very porous. Not selectively permeable
Secondary Cell Wall Inside the primary cell wall; more rigid than the primary cell wall, contains no pectin. Lignin is often deposited in 2ndary cell walls
(T:F) Cells with primary and 2ndary cell walls can no longer grow and divide? True
Pit pairs are.. 2 pits of adjacent cells in line with one another
Rafflesia arnoldii Corpse Flower; smells like rotten flesh. Parasitic, no chlorophyll
Simple tissues one cell type
three types of simple tissues parenchyma, chollenchyma, sclerenchyma
Parenchyma cells Thin, primary cell walls only. Can grow and divide; do not stain red,
Parenchyma cell roles photosynthesis and storage
Chollenchyma Cells Unevenly thickened primary walls, no 2ndary walls
Chollenchyma Cell Roles Provides support in actively growing regions, still flexible
Sclerenchyma Cells Primary and secondary cell walls
2 types of Sclerenchyma Cells Fibers and Sclereids
Fibers (sclerenchyma) Very thick cell walls, have pits, have a lumen, dead at maturity
Sclereids (sclerenchyma) Isodiametric
Isodiametric Equal diameters all around (sclereids)
Lumen Where cytoplasm was
(T:F) Meristematic Cells actively grow and divide True
(T:F) Complex tissues are non meristatic tissues True
5 Types of Complex Tissues Epidermis, Xylem, Phloem, Periderm, Secretory
Epidermis outermost layer of cells on plant organs, usually one cell thick
Trichomes hairs or projections from epidermal cells for defense
(T:F) Glanular hairs do not secrete False
Stapelia spp Carrion flower; smells to attract pollinators
(T:F) Air plants are called leprocites False, they are called epiphytes
(T:F) Air plants use roots to take up nutrients False, they use hairs
Cuticle Waxy layer outside of epidermis
Four types of hairs carnivorous plants may have: Downward sloping hairs, narcotic hairs, glandular hairs, trigger hairs
Root hairs: extensions from the epidermis which absorb water and dissolve substances; increase surface area
Roles of the xylem: water and mineral transport, support, and some storage
Components of the xylem: Parenchyma cells, fibers (sclerenchyma), vessels, trachieds, and rays of parenchyma cells
(T:F) Xylem transport is upwards and downwards False, transport is upwards and sideways
Vessels long tubes made up of vessel elements; open ended or R-like strips
(T:F) Trachieds are narrower than vessels? True
(T:F) Trachieds and vessels both have primary and secondary cell walls True; they are both part of the xylem which is made of sclerenchyma cells (which have primary and secondary cell walls)
(T:F) Both vessels and trachieds have lignin True
(T:F) Vessels are living False, dead at maturity
(T:F) Vessels are more resistant to transport than trachieds False; trachieds are more resistant to transport
Prophase the phase in which the nuclear envelope disapears and the chromosomes condense and become distinguishable
Interphase in which cells spend most of their time
Metaphase in which the centromeres of chromosomes are aligned at the middle of cell
Telophase in which the middle lamella forms creating 2 daughter cells
What is the name of the red-orange organelles found in the cells of tomatoes and peppers? Chromoplasts
What is one function of collenchyma cells? Flexible support
What distinguishes sclerenchyma cells? Lignin in secondary cell wall, dead at maturity
How would you distinguish anthocyanin pigments from chromoplasts? Anthocyanin pigments dissolve in water whereas chromoplasts dissolve in fat
What is a cytoplasmic bridge? Narrow strands of cytoplasm that criss-cross over the central vacuole
Where do starch grains develope in a cell? in Leuocoplasts and on larger chloroplasts
Created by: andrewdouv